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The Heritage Lodge 

No. 730, A.F.& A.M., G.R.C. 

Instituted: September 21, 1977 
Constituted: September 23, 1978 


Vol. 15, 1991 - 1992 

Worshipful Master: 

R.W. Bro. Frank G. Dunn 

R.W. Bro. Jacob (Jack) Pos 

10 Mayfield Avenue 

Guelph, Ont., Canada 

N1G 2L8 

(519) 821-4995 


R.W. Bro. Frank G. Dunn 

Initiated - Credit Lodge No. 219, Hon. L.M. 

Affiliated - Lake Shore Lodge No. 645, 

Worshipful Master - Lake Shore Lodge No. 645 

Affiliated - The Heritage Lodge No. 730, L.M. 

Affiliated - Runnyraede Lodge No. 619 

Toronto Lodge of Perfection, A.& A.S.R. 

Toronto Sovereign Chapter Rose Croix, A.& A.S.R., 

Moore Sovereign Consistory, Hamilton 

Barrie A.& A.S.R., Three Bodies Affiliated 

Grand Junior Warden, G.R.C. 

Member of The Board of General Purposes 



Page No. 100 


It is a pleasure as the Fifteenth Worshipful Master of The 
Heritage Lodge to write the introduction to the Proceedings for the 
year 1991 - 92. 

This year the Lodge had three meetings out of town; 1) The 
March Meeting was held in Niagara-on-the Lake to help Niagara 
Lodge No. 2, G.R.C., commence their 200th Anniversary Celebrat- 
ions; 2) In May we were invited by Unity Lodge No. 376 to hold our 
meeting in Huntsville; and 3) Our September meeting was held in 
Consecon, with Consecon Lodge No. 50 as Host. This is the first 
time in our history when our Annual Election was not held in 

The Eighth Annual Heritage Banquet Night was well 
received as was our Guest Speaker V.W. Bro. John V. Lawer Q.C., 
who is also the Sovereign Grand Commander of the Ancient and 
Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry of Canada. Details of the 
Topics of the various papers are given in the Editorial Comments. I 
thank the Brethren who prepared the papers for our enjoyment. 

The Lodge now has a reduced copy of our Charter which is 
more manageable for transport. We thank the Grand Master, M.W. 
Bro. Norman E. Byrne for signing our copy of the Travelling 

On behalf of the Officers & Members of the Lodge and 
myself I thank our Editor and Secretary R.W. Bros. Jack Pos and 
Rev. Gray Rivers, who are both retiring this year, for a job well 
done. We wish them well and good health. Thank you. 

It has been an honour to serve The Heritage Lodge as 
Worshipful Master for this year. 

Frank G. Dunn, W.M. 



The first meeting of the Lodge this year was held at our 
regular meeting place in Cambridge on September 18, 1991. The 
Speaker on this occasion was our own R.W. Bro. John Storey, who 
presented a most interesting paper titled * FREEMASONRY AND 

The Eighth Annual Heritage Banquet was held in the York 
Banquet Hall, Toronto, and the guest speaker was V.W. Bro. John 
V. Lawer, who spoke on the topic "Whence the Scottish Rite?" The 
Heritage Lodge was most fortunate in having the Sovereign Grand 
Commander of the Supreme Council of the 33rd Degree of the 
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry of Canada, 
delve beyond the cloak of mystery to explore, for us, the 'Whence' of 

The March meeting was held under the auspices of the 
oldest Lodge in the Province, Niagara Lodge No. 2, G.R.C., which 
Lodge is Celebrating its Bicentennial Anniversary this year. It was 
most appropriate that W. Bro. Nelson King chose for his topic on 
this occasion "John Graves Simcoe - Statesman, Soldier and 

Our May meeting was held in Huntsville with Unity Lodge 
No. 376 as our Host. R.W. Bro. Robert T Runciman presented a 
paper entitled "Sir Arthur Conan-Doyle - Sherlock Holmes and 
Freemasonry". Unfortunately, due to a prior claim by Quatuor 
Coronati Lodge No. 2076, we are unable to pubHsh this paper. 

The fourth paper for these proceedings entitled "The 
Heritage Lodge No. 730 - A Conscience for Ontario's Masonic 
History", was presented at the Niagara Lodge, No. 2, A.F.& A.M., 
G.R.C., Bi-centennial Anniversary Masonic History Conference, May 
23-24, 1992, at Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario. 

Jack Pos 




The Worshipful Master 100 

Preface 101 

Editorial Comments 102 

Table of Contents 103 

Disclaimer 103 

Freemasonry and the Old Guilds, by 

R.W. Bro. John Storey 104 

Review #1, by R.W. Bro. Jack MacKenzie 118 

Review #2, by V.W. Bro. John V. Lawer 120 

Response to Reviewers by John Storey 123 

Whence The Scottish Rite by 

V.W. Bro. John V. Lawer 126 

When I was a King and a Mason - by Kipling 138 

John Graves Simcoe - Statesman, Soldier and Freemason, by 

W. Bro. Nelson King 139 

Review #1, by W. Bro. Stewart Greavette 150 

Review #2, by W. Bro. Colm K. Duquemin 152 

Response to Reviewers by Nelson King 152 

Informal Discussion, Re; John Graves Simcoe 154 

The Heritage Lodge No. 730, G.R.C., - A Conscience for 
Ontario's Masonic History, by R.W. Bro. Jack Pos 155 

The Narrow Boundary - by Rob Morris 188 

Our Departed Brethren 189 

The Land of Milk and Honey - by Rob Morris 190 

Lodge Officers & Committees 191 


The contributors to these Proceedings are alone responsible for 
the opinions expressed and also for the accuracy of the statements 
made therein, and do not necessarily reflect the opinions or policies 
of The Heritage Lodge. 




R.W. Bro. John Storey 

I have the honour of belonging to one of the London Gilds. I 
am a Liveryman of the Honourable Company of Master Mariners 
and a Freeman of the City of London as well as a 33rd Degree 
Mason and a Past MPS of the Red Cross of Constantine. 

I was attracted to Freemasonry when I learned what a lodge was 
doing in communities in the war-torn country of Korea in the mid 
50s. Overseas lodges were sending funds for the rebuilding of homes 
and churches which had suffered during the fighting. I realized that 
Freemasonry gave men something to live for other than themselves; 
there was a family spirit amongst the members which was evident 
through the caring they had for each other and their famihes. 

It was only later I discovered the common link between Free- 
masonry and the Old Gilds the aims and tenets of which I found 
went back to time immemorial. 

The origins and history of our Craft have been the subject of 
many papers and books in many languages and from many different 
points of view. They are so obscure up to the time of the formation 
of the Grand Lodge that based on the evidence one finds everyone 
is entitled to draw his own conclusion. 

There is evidence that guilds were in existence in Egypt at the 
time of the building of the Pyramids and magnificent temples of 
those days and also at the building of King Solomon's Temple. Tliese 
builders' Guilds were no doubt composed of men of exceptional skill. 
In those early days when books were practically non-existent, 

* Paper presented at the Regular Meeting of The Heritage Lodge held in 
the Preston -Hespeler Masonic Building, Cambridge, September 18, 1991. 


buildings were erected to the Glory of God The Almighty and gave 
man the opportunity to express his highest ideals. 

Apparently where there was demand by the Kings, popes 
and prelates, these guilds of expert craftsmen gradually moved from 
Egypt and Palestine through Greece and into Italy where they 
became the progenitors of the old Roman Collegia (13)*. These we 
know were organized in lodges ruled over by a master and two 
wardens; they had three grades and used practically all our emblems. 
There is evidence that they used signs, words, grips and marks. It is 
possible to find the same marks on ancient buildings in India as you 
find in England. 

However, be that as it may; the major question in our minds 
is what has this got to do with us? Does Freemasonry owe anything 
to the Old Guilds? According to a Past Master of the Quatuor 
Coronati Lodge it does. 

You may say that it is all very well but what are "guilds"? 
and why should they have anything to do with our Craft as we know 
it today? 

A definition written early last century may help us in this 
respect:- "They (the guilds) were in the nature of benefit societies; 
from which the workman, in return for the contributions which he 
made when in health and vigour to the Common Stock of the Guild, 
might be relieved in sickness or when disabled by the infirmities of 
age." They developed into what are now known as Livery Com- 
panies or Livery Guilds as described by a recent Lord mayor of 
London; - "The adaptation of the Liveries to encompass modern-day 
needs and technology has been one of the most outstanding achiev- 
ements in keeping alive the spirit of Craftsmanship and professional- 
ism on which this country is founded." 

Now what does Freemasonry owe to the Guilds? 

Apparently Uttle research was done in the relationship 
between the gilds and freemasonry until covered by Bro. Bernard E. 
Jones on 8th November, 1960. He had read extensively of guild 

* Bracketed numbers refer to numbered references in the Bibliography 


records and had come to the conclusion that our Craft owes much 
to the old gilds and livery companies; some details of which we have 
embodied in our organization, customs and language. He therefore 
chose to cover this subject in his inaugural address as incoming 
Master of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge No. 2076 in 1960. He was 
very systematic in his approach to the subject and I would like to 
give you some comments based on his paper:- 

The Jurisdiction of the Premier Grand Lodge (1717) was 
originally only seven miles. In this it exactly followed guild practice 
in that the Masons' Company of London had jurisdiction of a radius 
of seven miles from its hall. A guild being essentially a "city body" 
commonly extended its jurisdiction two miles beyond the city limits. 
The Carpenters' Guild of 1607 is an example and which, when the 
boundaries of London were extended, followed suit; similarly with 
the growth of Freemasonry in the 1720s the jurisdiction of Grand 
Lodge quickly exceeded its original seven mile limit and covered not 
only the whole Kingdom but the Colonies overseas as well. 

The vital importance of the Grand Master's Charter or 
Warrant is well known to all Masons and there is httle doubt that 
the original idea came from guild practice. The granting of such a 
warrant or charter transformed a voluntary organisation to a legal 
body; a guild without a charter fought hard to obtain one perhaps 
very similar to the efforts made today for a warrant for a new lodge 
or chapter. The grant of a charter or warrant by the Crown or City 
Authority involved fees and charges; and, as in Freemasonry, the 
grant of a charter was then and still is a very important occasion. 

The word "Degree" was commonly used in guild records and 
it is assumed that Freemasonry adopted this system from them. 
Shakespeare refers to the degrees in "Henry VIII" as follows:- 

First Degree -Apprentices of the Craft; Second Degree - 
Freeman; Third Degree - Householders; Fourth Degree - the Livery 
or Clothing, the Fellowship; Fifth Degree - young Wardens, Second 
Warden and the Upper Warden or Master. 

Freemasonry has given the word "degree" a deep and 
special meaning, but originally as a gild term it implied a step, or 
alternatively, a rank; e.g. the ordinances of the Masons' Company in 


1481 directed its members to be clad in the clothing ordained for 
their "powers and degrees". 

Livery or "Clothing" - We commonly refer to our insignia 
as "clothing" which term has been taken directly from the gild custo- 
ms. The gilds adopted livery, a distinguished badge or dress usually 
in the form of a cloak or 'gown', as far back as the 14th century. 
The livery was individual in colour and pattern distinctive to each 
Company. The Grocers' records from the early 1500s speak of 
"Brothers of the Clothing" - many were fined for coming to the Hall 
"unclothed" or taking off a livery gown before the end of the session. 

The early Freemason was lead to wear a distinctive article 
of dress, his apron, which he came to regard as his "clothing". All 
through the 18th century Brethren were fined for attending lodge 
"unclothed" or wearing an operative's apron instead of the 
speculative's symbolic apron, and in all this we see Freemasonry's 
dependence on gild precedent. 

CRAFT — This must be one of the commonest and most 
affectionately regarded terms in Masonry. It occurs in gild hterature 
thousands of times. In general, the word "mystery" which meant 
"trade" in those days gave way in the 14th century to "craft" - this was 
retained until the 1600s when speculative Masonry adopted it. It 
must be realised that the old gilds had a dual life or function — the 
"mystery or craft" working as a trade association, upholding the 
standard of workmanship, etc., and the "fraternity or brotherhood" 
promoting the spiritual and social well-being of the members and 
having special regard for religious observance, benevolence, etc.. All 
these four terms have come down as a heritage to Freemasonry, 
although the word "mystery" has gained a different, and esoteric or 
confidential meaning. 

FREEMASON - There has been some controversy concern- 
ing the origin of the term "Free". Apparently during the 17th century 
the term "freemason" referred to a skilled operative "freemason" who 
was later simply called a "mason" and the more skilled called 
"master-masons". London's Company of Freemasons dropped the 
syllable 'free' from its title which, in doing so, opened up the way for 
our Craft to make use of this term. Later the term was supple- 
mented by the term "accepted" masons late in the 17th century and 


as "free and accepted" masons after the founding of the first Grand 
Lodge(1717). All this is common knowledge but it is mentioned to 
show that freemasons succeeded to the proud designation that could 
only have come from nowhere else but from a gild. 

The fact is recognised in numerous gild ordinances the origin 
or possible origin of the traditional qualifications of a candidate for 
Freemasonry; e.g. the Cutlers' in 1420, decreed that no member 
should take as apprentice any person unless he was of free-birth and 
condition, comely in stature and person, and of full age. In the same 
century the Carpenters' insisted that the apprentice shall be brought 
to the Master or Warden "to the intent that they may understand 
whether the same Apprer tice be free borne or not and also that he 
be not lame, crooked or deformed...." 

The world at large considers Freemasonry to be a secret 
society when in actual fact it is a closed society having some secrets. 
So was every gild through the centuries, but their secrets were not 
ours or our sort. The Re|',ius MS (dated about 1380) in the first of 
the "Old Charges" emphasised the need for the apprentice "to keep 
close his master's counsel", - a great many of the Old Charges of 
later days insist that no one be accepted as a Freemason or know the 
secrets of the society until he had first taken the oath of secrecy. 
But we must remember that three or four centuries earlier than the 
Regis MS many trade associations or gilds impressed upon their 
members the need to maintain close counsel in all matters concern- 
ing their corporate livelihood. (The secrets of the old gilds could 
well be termed "trade secrets" which are common practice throughout 
the organisation of modern business today.) There are many 
instances of resolutions of the various gilds emphasising the need for 
"close council". There is more than one instance of an ordin- 
ance of a gild including the threat to dismiss anyone revealing 
"anything that passed at the table, contrary to his oath". This also 
reveals the fact that memoers of gilds were bound together by "his 

Masonic obligations are essentially promises to conceal 
secrets communicated to the initiated - such secrets having a purely 
symbolic relation to the old "trade secrets" unparted to the old 
apprentices. Many of the 18th century masonic obligations were 
obviously modelled on the oaths enacted of the medieval gild 


apprentice. The form of oath given in the Dumfries No.4 MS (1710) 
and similarly in the London Masonry of 1730 obliges the candidate 
not to divulge "charges and secrets" together with "the counsels of 
this holy lodge chamber or hall". In consequence we can see a 
direct link with or heritage from the requirement of the old gilds. 

In our consideration of Freemasonry and the gilds on this 
subject of secrecy perhaps we should realise the common bond of the 
atmosphere of secrecy which we in fact have inherited from the 
traditions of the ancient gilds. 


Although these for the most part have been dictated by 
common sense there have been some precedents which probably 
have been the result of gild practice, e.g. The common rule of the 
appointment of a lodge committee for the consideration of eligibility 
of candidates. 

Within Freemasonry we are taught the strict duty of 
composing any differences which might arise between brethren. By- 
Laws and customs of the old gilds insist that Brethren defer any 
disputes to arbitration within the lodge; they also name penalties for 
not so doing. A dispute in the Grocers gild in 1390-1 involved two 
ex-mayors, men of power and estate - a dispute to "the great danger 
of the City and probably the whole realm"; a proclamation issued by 
assent of the Mayor and Aldermen insisted that no one speak nor 
counsel any opinion of the two disputants under penalty of imprison- 
ment in Newgate for a year and a day. We are told that the court 
of Aldermen itself, in its concern for the prestige of the gild 
companies, often acted in a judicial capacity. (See Rules Respecting 
Trials - Page 107 G.L. Canada Constitutions also Sec. 198 page 90 
Con. & Laws G.L. of S.) 


A few years after the formation of the first Grand Lodge 
Masonry adopted an old gild system of placing upon the shoulders 
of Stewards all the responsibility and much of the expense of 
organizing the regular festivals. This system is the subject of the 
existing Grand Lodge regulation No. 36, placing upon the 19 Grand 


Stewards the duty of regulating the Grand Festival "that no expense 
shall fall on the Grand Lodge and no lodge shall contribute towards 
the expense", each Grand Steward paying his proportion and not 
being allowed, under penalty, to accept moneys towards such 
expense. There is considerable evidence on this subject and to quote 
one rather interesting case; in the Masons' Gild, 1654, a Steward 
(thought to be the Master nineteen years later) was fined for refusing 
to serve; repented, but again refused, and as a result was committed 
to Newgate Goal until he paid or was lawfully discharged.' 

It might be asked why would anyone wish to serve in an 
office involving heavy personal expense. The obvious answer is that 
serving the office of Steward led to membership of the Court of 
Assistants and opened the way to Wardenship. 

During the 18th century the duties of what we now call the 
Senior Steward fell upon the Junior Warden as the "ostensible stewa- 
rd" of the lodge and during the period of the Union about the 1820s 
did the authority of the Junior Warden and the Steward began to 
diminish. Apparently it became desirable and customary for the 
Master to convey a courteous hint to the incoming Junior Warden 
that any stewardship now required of him would be purely speculati- 

Freemasonry has inherited from the gilds the annual festival 
especially at the time of the Installation. The old gilds made rather 
elaborate feasts of their annual "bash" to which they invited VIP 
guests, had payed entertainers etc. You are all fully acquainted with 
this system so there is no need to go into further detail. 


There was no need of precedent to guide our early brethren 
in the way of benevolence and charity. There are so many cases on 
records of that the old gilds did in the past - the alms houses, schools 
and hospitals they build and in a number of cases maintain to this 
day. Records also reveal quite a number of students who were and 
are being helped at the present time and sent to college. 

It was the standing custom for the old gilds to make 
charitable payments from their "common box" which was kept 


stocked by the receipt of fines and gifts, lliis "box" regularly passed 
into the care of the New Master and his wardens. 

The Beadle or Tyler or Outer Guard 

The likeness of the old gild Beadle to our Tyler is identical. 
In those days he was 'of lowly stature'. But at the same time had 
many rather important duties which were essential to the well-being 
of the gild. In the old days he was the only paid official, part of his 
duties was the preparation and dehvery of summonses to members; 
to prevent the waste of wine and Hquor at dinners, to inform the 
Master that the court intended to fine him if he did not attend to his 
duties. In many cases the Beadle wore as special dress - a cloak or 
gow*^. and hat or cap - and carried his emblem of office a silver- 
mounted staff. 

I mentioned above about the Beadle being responsible for 
the preparation and delivery of summonses - there is on record the 
fact that in the Tuscan lodge No. 14 this custom lasted until 1814 
and apparently in some lodges to a much later date. 

The author Bro. Bernard Jones ended his excellent paper 
with the following - "Can there be, do you think, the slightest doubt 
that the guild Beadle has, in the Craft, become the lodge Tyler? If 
there is, I hope to dispel it by quoting from a minute of the Cutlers' 
Guild, June 15th 1644, relating to the Upper and lower Beadles: - 

"Ordered from henceforth. ..the Beadles.. .stay att the outward 
doore until they shall be called in And to come in to attend the will 
of the court att the knocke of the Hammer." 

The Guild system was in existence among the early Anglo- 
Saxons and is older than any of the early Kings of England. Tliere 
were Cnybten Gyld, or young Men's Guild of King Edgar's time, 973, 
Orky's Guild, a religious one, during the reign of Edward the 
Confessor, 1042 to 1056, whose charter is still preserved and which 
appears to have been used as a precedent for later guilds whose 
practices were like those of Masonic Fraternities. Some writers 
consider guilds to be the offspring of Roman colleges and make 
reference to guilds in Europe - in France in 779 and later in No way, 


Sweden and Denmark in the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries, appar- 
ently there is Httle reference to EngHsh guilds until after the Norman 
Conquest about 1100 by which time Brotherhoods had appeared - in 
which members pledged their support of one another. 

The word "Guild" is a derivation of the Anglo-Saxon "Vern 
Gilden", meaning to pay and every member was required to contrib- 
ute to its support. There were guilds for mutual assistance, friend- 
ship and observance of religious duties and morahty which had been 
in existence in all civiUsed countries from very early times. Even the 
trades and professions of Egypt during its early history were divided 
into trades and crafts. At athens in Greece and to other large cities, 
clubs and societies similar to the guilds of Europe and the U.K., 
were in existence for Charitable and social purposes, granting 
assistance to those of its members in distress. Roman craft guilds 
were similar. 

Among the early guilds were the Thane's Guild of Camb- 
ridge, the guild of Smiths at Chesterfield, and the Tailor's Guild of 
Lincoln. Later guilds became incorporated companies of Masons, 
Mercers, Drapers, Carpenters and Smiths. Several charters of these 
old guilds are still preserved and likely provide a fruitful source of 
information for the founders of Modern Freemasonry. 

It is important to note that Masonic Guilds must be 
distinguished from the Freemason's Fraternity as for centuries master 
Builders and master craftsmen were called Freemasons. However, 
it is through the Freemasons' operative fraternities that Modern 
Freemasonry traces its history and Hneagc and not generally through 
the Charter Guilds. 

According to Conder who wrote about the London Free- 
mason's Company in 1894, Roman Colleges were brought to England 
by the Romans. They survived and no doubt gave rise to the Guilds 
which transmitted much of their system and practices to Freem- 
asonry. Bernard Jones, whom I have quoted above was one of the 
best Masonic writers, he considers there is a reasonable case for the 
straight descent from these Roman Colleges to the Guilds. 

The earliest traces of organisation among masons in the 
Western Christendom are found in connection with ecclesiastical 


buildings. Traces of such an establishment are found in the building 
of the Abbey of Kilwinning which seems to have organized a 
considerable school of masonry. Apparently the reputation of the 
masons from this district has long been maintained. The survivals of 
medieval operative masonry in the 18th century Scottish Freemasonry 
are most interesting; the primacy of Mother Kilwinning among the 
Lodges of Scotland, and the importance of the Canongate Kilwinning 
and Leith Kilwinning, all testify to the importance of the monastic 
establishment at Kilwinning in connection with Scottish architecture 
and masonry. 

Incidently in modern times we have a number of lodges in 
Scotland going back with an unbroken record to the building epoch, 
and always closely associated with the town life, and the administra- 
tion of the actual trade; some sort of national organisation is also 
indicated (QCC vol XLIII-1930-p.l96)-Whereas in England to all 
appearances Lodge Masons and in the City Craft Gilds masons were 
distinct bodies, in Scotland in quite a number of cases members of 
the Lodge were also members of the Incorporation, and the Seal of 
Cause refers to "the common lodge". 

In England at the time of the building of St. Paul's Cathe- 
dral (1675-1710) we find an operative craft or society with traditions, 
secrets and philosophy of ancient origin, but quite separate from the 
guilds. However from early records a Lodge was formed for the 
actual building of St. Paul's and was referred to as "Old Lodge of St. 
Paul's" which descended to what is now known as Lodge of the 
Antiquity No. 2. 

Although York was considered to be the home of masonry 
in the 17th and 18th centuries there is only a dim tradition that 
organised operative lodges went out from thence as late as 1831 but 
they do not seem to have been connected with the cathedral and 
according to their tradition they originated under royal authority. 
Royal organisation become prominent in the later Middle Ages. The 
Kings of Scotland in the 15th century undertook a great deal of 
building. This was organised by a sort of public works department 
headed by the Royal Master Mason and he was apparently respon- 
sible for the design. LinHthgow Palace was begun in 1425 and 
Parliament Hall in the Castle of Stirling dates from 1473. Incidently 
the names of the Master Masons have been preserved. 


In Ireland apparently no documentary record has yet been 
discovered to give concrete evidence that their ancient brethren had 
been bound together by a code of laws and regulations similar to the 
Regius Poem as early as the 1400s. Yet the gild system was known 
in Ireland from very remote times. They are incHned to seek a 
religious origin for those associations practising brotherly love and 
relief and perhaps the true origin of the gilds is to be found in the 
Family. Furthermore the original meaning of the word "gild" is "an 
association in a town where payment was made for mutual support 
and protection" or according to another source :something connected 
with tribute, its mode of payment, or the medium of payment gener- 
ally". This was quite a new thought to me and I believe it could well 
have been the evolution of the gild system which developed through 
the trade organisations to Freemasonry in parallel with the gilds as 
we know them today. 

In the obscure period before Grand Lodges came into being 
the same phenomena crop up in Ireland as in England, consisting of 
scanty, tantalising references to masons, symbolisms and local lodges. 
"The English operative gild system, however, was imported into the 
Irish Pale and seems to have flourished there", to quote the History 
of the G.L. of Ireland. This could mean that wherever there were 
English settlers a gild system may possibly have come into being 
which later developed into masonic lodges. But more than likely 
these were based on what had been in existence for perhaps 
centuries. It is interesting to note that many overseas lodges were 
estabhshed by the Irish. 

However as far back as the time of Henry VIII when there 
were questions of certain legislations concerning the gilds apparently 
there is no evidence that Gilds, whether Social, Religious or Craft 
have ever been brought into existence by Statute; they were a natural 
development, although many of them had charters which gave them 
authority to administer the regulations they themselves had framed. 
Apparently in each country the masons simply followed the general 
guild practice. The very earliest Minutes of the Edinburgh Lodge 
show that it is following the Gild practice. (QCC XLIII) 

The actual transition from operative to speculative was 
indeed a very gradual process. In England there is httle if any record 
of when it took place whereas in Scotland it can be followed in 


considerable detail. Not only in Edinburgh but in many other lodges 
in the 17th and 18th centuries. (QCC-XLIII) 

Quite recently I was reading a chapter in an old book which 
was published in 1911 on the subject of the origins of freemasonry 
in France which has added some interesting angles. 

The subject was introduced by the comment that German 
authors have seized upon every trifling circumstance and every 
chance co-incidence to show a German origin of Freemasonry. 

However French masonic writers were not tempted to seek 
the "origin" of freemasonry in their own past history but rather in the 
combination of French guilds with that of the "Companionage". 
With the result using a slight amount of faith in some plausible 
conclusions and natural deductions from some undoubted facts has 
given rise to an Origin. Some French authors have maintained that 
the "coteries" of working masons gave rise to the Order of Freem- 

During the period 715-740 Charles Martel was responsible 
for special favours being granted to stone masons in France which 
became a tradition. This tradition became so well estabUshed as "to 
ensure very valuable privileges to the craftsmen claiming under it". 
With but one exception, all the Old Charges of British Freemasons 
also pointedly allude to the same distinguished soldier as a great 
patron and protector of masonry.' 

Early in the 16th century French masonic writers were mixed 
in their interpretation of the situation. But the NON-masonic writers 
were more objective. Rebold states "The masonic corporations were 
in a large measure dispersed and dissolved in France at the begin- 
ning of the 16th century when their scattered fragments were 
absorbed by the city guilds." "At length in 1539 Frances I abohshed 
all guilds of workmen in France thus perished Freemasonry 
according to the old signification of the Word." 

There are many theories as to the origin of Freemasonry. 
The period in which Freemasonry is believed to have evolved was 
one in which politics and religion were inextricably Unked an on 
which differences of opinion could split famihes, and eventually led | 


to civil war. Again there is the possibility that Freemasonry was still 
basically a trade-oriented society at the time of the formation of the 
premier Grand Lodge in 1717 was raised by that great historian 
Henry Sadler. Another long standing, though now discarded, theory 
saw Freemasonry as the direct descendent of the medieval Knights 
Templars. Although they may have had something to do with it in 
Scotland where it is claimed a number of Knights escaped to 
Scotland and fearful of further persecution transformed themselves 
into Freemasons. However another famous historian Waite, like 
OHver, "beheved that Freemasonry was essentially Christian in origin 
and character. He believed that Freemasonry had its origins in the 
gild system but that it had been transformed into a mystical system, 
its rituals, particulary of the additional degrees, conveying secret 
knowledge in the tradition of the Mysteries." 

Perhaps what I have given you above can best be summed 
up in an explanation of Freemasonry by the Grand Lodge of England 
in their pamphlet "What is Freemasonry?:- 

"Freemasonry is one of the world*s oldest secular 
societies... It is a society of men concerned with moral and spiritual 
values. Its members are taught by its precepts by a series of ritual 
dramas, which follow ancient forms and use stonemasons; customs 
and tools as allegorical guides. 

The essential qualifications for admission into and continu- 
ing membership is a belief in a Supreme Being. Membership is open 
to men of any race or religion who can fulfil this essential qualifica- 
tion and are of good repute. 

Freemasonry is not a religion, nor a substitute for religion. 
Its essential qualification opens it to men of many rehgions and it 
expects them to continue to follow their own faith. It does not allow 
religion to be discussed at their meetings. 

A Freemason is encouraged to do his duty first to God (by 
whatever name He is known) through his faith and religious practice; 
and then without detriment to his family and those dependent on 
him, to his neighbour through charity and service." 


In conclusion I would like to quote from the Old Charges on 
page 2 of our own Book of Constitutions and which originates from 
the first Masonic Constitutions of 1722:- 

"Masons unite with the virtuous of every persuasion in the 
firm and pleasing bond of fraternal love; they are taught to view the 
errors of mankind with compassion, and to strive by the purity of 
their conduct, to demonstrate the superior excellence of the faith 
they profess. Thus masonry is the centre of union between good 
men and true, and the happy means of conciliating friendship 
amongst those who must otherwise have remained at a perpetual 

This I believe epitomises a philosophy which is common to 
both Freemasonry and the Guilds. 


1. History of the G.L. of Ireland, Chaps. 1 & 3 

2. Encyclopedia of Freemasonry (Mackey & Hughan - 1924) Vol. 1- 

3. Freemasonry in Quebec (Graham, 1892) Chap.3 

4. Q.C.C. Transactions Vol.74 (Inaugural address - Bro. B. E. Jones) 

5. Discovering London's Guilds & Liveries (Melling) 

6. City of London Directory & Uvery Companies Guide (1988) 

7. Transactions of the Royal Historical Soc., 3rd Series, Vol. 7, 1913 

8. Freemasoniy, An ancient Legacy, (D. McConnell, 1964) Chap. 4 

9. "The Craft" - a History of English Freemasonry - John Hamill - 

10. "Regularity of Origin" (C. Haffiier-Hongkong 1986 p.l22) 

11. Irish Lodge of Research - Transactions (1939-46) Page 101 

12. Q.C.C. Transactions Vol. XUII (F.M. in England & Scotland) 

13. See "The Scottish Rite for Scotland: by R. S. Lindsay page 14. 

John Storey 



TBffi HIrMge LObdi 

September 18, 1991 


R.W. Bro. John Storey 



FIRST REVIEW - was prepared by R.W. Bro Jack MacKenzie 

I would first express my appreciation to R.W. Bro. Ed Drew 
for allowing me the opportunity of participating in the functions of 
the Heritage Lodge through this review, 

I last had an opportunity to hear Bro. Storey when he 
presented a paper on the history and times of the Essenes to the 
1991 spring class of the Toronto Chapter of Rose Croix. Bro. Storey 
is fast gaining a reputation as a distinguished guest speaker and 
masonic research student and I trust my review will not be superflu- 
ous to what till now has been an informative and enjoyable evening. 

I must first congratulate Bro. Storey for the perseverance 
that he has demonstrated in researching such a complex subject. It 
is apparent from the bibliography and included comments that many 
books were reviewed, read and scanned to provide the material for 
this paper and we must face the fact that not all masonic literature 
is interesting reading. 

The introduction portion of this paper contains many 
interesting items of information and indeed stimulates the curiosity 
of even the most casual student. Bro. Storey begins his presentation 
and I quote "The guild system was in existence among the early 
Anglo-Saxons and is older than any of the early kings of England". 
Nowhere in the paper however, can I find a brief and precise 
description of the guild "system" and I feel this inclusion would have 


been beneficial to his audience. He does state later "the original 
meaning of the word guild is an association in a town where payment 
was made for mutual support" however this implies that its original 
meaning has evolved into something entirely different. 

Very early in his presentation he indicates and I quote: "It 
is important to note that Masonic Guilds must be distinguished from 
the Freemasons fraternity: and then later "However it is through the 
Freemasons operative fraternities that modem Freemasonry traces 
its history and lineage and not generally through the Charter Guilds". 
I am still at a loss to explain these distinctions; Did the operative 
fraternity and the guilds evolve at the same times? If the operative 
fraternity was the organization of the tradesman, what was the 
purpose of the Masonic Guilds and who did they serve? For me 
these questions remain unanswered. As most masons do not 
differentiate between the Charter Guilds and the Freemasons 
Fraternity, I beheve an explanation of these distinctions at this point 
would have been helpful. 

It is interesting to note the inclusion of the theories of the 
rise of Freemasonry in Germany and France into the paper. How- 
ever so much of these results are based on "assumption", "faith" and 
"deductions" I am sure they were included only as an interesting 
diversion and not support for the theme of this paper- 
Under the section "Freemasonry's Debt to the Guilds", Bro. 
Storey provides over dozen examples of the origin of modern 
masonic terminology. These examples are supported by proof and 
logic to show a connection between the Charter Guilds and Freem- 
asonry. He does not ask us to use any amount of faith or natural 
deductions. The hsting of specific items and words on page 4 and 
onwards, e.g. Grand Masters Charter, Degree, Craft, Freemason, etc. 
and then detailing their evolvement is an effective method strength- 
ening an argument and reinforcing the purpose of the paper. 

In closing I would state that Bro. Storey*s objective of 
demonstrating a connection between the old Charter Guilds and the 
masonic fraternity has been accomphshed and is indeed knowledge 
grounded on accuracy, aided by labour, promoted by perseverance 
and, I might add, presented by an individual who has a firm grasp of 
the subject at hand. Jack MacKenzie 


SECOND REVIEW - was prepared by V.W. Bro. John V. Lawer 

I first wish to thank, R. W. Bro. Edwin C. Drew, for the confidence 
he reposed in me when in his then capacity as Chairman of the 
Masonic Education Committee of the Lodge, he invited me to review 
this scholarly paper. 

I must say, however, that as a neophyte Freeman of the City of 
London I feel as though I am somewhat in the position of the newly 
Entered Apprentice on the evening of and immediately following the 
ceremony of his initiation into the Craft who is so foohsh as to 
dispute on the subject of the ritual with the a very senior and most 
learned Past Master of the Lodge of which he has just become a 

Fortunately for me, because of the evident scholarship exhibited by 
our distinguished speaker this evening, I can restrict myself to 
comment only. 

While recognizing that other theories as to the origin of Freemasonry 
certainly do exist and have their exponents, it would have been 
interesting to hear Bro. Storey's thoughts on the theory of the 
transition of operative into speculative Masonry, a topic particularly 
opposite to the title of his Paper. 

The generally accepted theory is that for various reasons organiz- 
ations of operative masons declined in the strength during the 
seventeenth century, and again for various reasons persons who did 
not practice the trade, or speculatives, were gradually admitted and 
in time came to predominate in these organizations or guilds of 

In a recent article in the Philalethes Magazine, Bro. John R. Nocas 
FPS, questioned the validity of the theory at least so far as England 
is concerned "simply because England did not have Operative Lodges 
during the transition period". 

He went on to say, "England, however did have one great Guild, the 
Mason's Company of London, Coil says: "It is the only gild organiz- 


ation of Masons of any consequence known to have existed in 
England - the Mason*s Company is the oldest organization of Masons 
in England". " (1) 

The Mason*s Company of Lx)ndon, - the guild, - had existed since the 
fourteenth century, but early in the seventeenth century it began to 
"accept" non-operatives into its membership. This inner fraternity 
was known as the Acception, and by 1682 it was The Lodge. (2) 

Nocas quotes, in part, the observations of Pick and Knight that 
membership in the Acception did not necessarily follow membership 
of the Company. Indeed, Nicholas Stone, the King;s Master Mason, 
who was Master of the Company in 1?63, did not join the Acception 
until 1639. (3) 

Even to this day admission to the Freedom and Livery of some of 
the London companies is restricted to persons who are actually 
qualified in the skill or trade of the company whose name they bear. 
An example is Bro Storey's own Company, - the Master Mariners. 

Reference to the City of London Directory and Livery Companies 
guide reveals that among those where the Livery is restricted is the 
Mason's Company. (4) 

Does this then, provide the clue to the origin of the link which Bro. 
Storey demonstrates, exists, between the Craft and the Guild? 

It would be interesting to see whether there is evidence in the 
records of the Mason's Company which would show a withdrawal of 
The Lodge from the Company to become the genesis of the 
speculative Craft. 

Whether the traditional view that organizations of operative Masons 
throughout England began to admit members not skilled in the 
particular trade be adopted, or Bro. Nocas "theory that perhaps 
friends of the Acception organized throughout England Lodges 
which were speculative from the beginning, it is, of course, the fact 
that the first Grand Lodge was established in London. 

Bro. Storey notes that the territorial jurisdiction of the Premier 
Grand Lodge (1717) followed initially the practice of the Mason's 


Company of London. He refers to this jurisdiction as being seven 
miles from its hall. Bro. Michael Spurr in an interesting article in 
volume 102 (1989) AQC p 197 says, "When the Premier Grand 
Lodge was founded it restricted its activities to those parts of London 
that fell within the area known as "The Bills of Mortality" which was, 
at that time, roughly a ten-mile radius from Charing 
Cross". (5) 

Whichever measurement is correct originally, everyone agrees that 
very soon the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge extended far beyond 
the City, - and with the expansion went so many of the traditions, 
customs, ideals and, indeed, the trappings of the old guilds. 

Time and space naturally precluded Bro. Storey from giving a 
complete list of all the matters Freemasonry adopted or inherited 
from the gilds and particularly from the Mason's Company. 

One area to which he alludes and which cannot be emphasized too 
much in the context of his subject is the fact that the training of an 
apprentice was ahvays in moral character as well as craft skills or 
trading practices (6). At the Admission Ceremony to the Freedom 
of the City the person so honoured is presented with a small red 
book stamped in gold entitled "Rules for the Conduct of Life". It 
contains thirty-six rules, all of the highest moral character and with 
many references to the Holy Bible. 

Finally, - so this review does not become longer than the paper itself, 
- Bro. Storey quotes the pamphlet "What is Freemasonry" issued by 
the United Grand Lodge of England that Masons "are taught... its 
precepts by a series of ritual dramas, which follow ancient forms". 
Particularly when one thinks of the degrees of some of the 
appendant orders, could their origin possibly be found in the mystery, 
miracle and moraUty plays staged by the medieval guilds? 

Bro. Storey's excellent paper has enriched our knowledge and 
whetted our appetite for even more hght to be shed on his interest- 
ing subject. 



(1) The PhUalethes Magazine, December 1990, p 11 

(2) Beyond the Pillars p 26 

(3) The Philalethes Magazine, December 1990, p 11 

( ) Pick & Knight: The Pocket History of Freemasonry, 6th ed., p 44 

(4) City of London Directoiy & Liveiy Companies Guide, 1988, p 205 

(5) A.Q.C. (1989) vol. 102, p 197 

(6) The Honourable Company of Freemen of the City of London of 
North America, p 6 



R.W. Bro. John Storey 

Replying to R. Wor. Jack MacKenzie*s Review: — 

1. To clarify the definition of the Guild System — 

I would say the function of a guild was two fold - first of all 
composed of a group or lodge of men of the same profession who 
shared their expertise and professional secrets. They demanded the 
highest standards of work as their reputation and in consequence 
livelihood depended on the quality of their production. 

Secondly it was natural that they should become bound 
together socially:- 

A definition written early last century may help us in this 
respect:- "They (the guilds) were in the nature of benefit societies: 
from which the workman, in return for the contributions which he 
made when in health and vigour to the Common Stock of the Guild, 
might be relieved in sickness or when disabled by the infirmities of 
age." They developed into what are now known as Livery companies 
or Livery Guilds as described by a recent Lord Mayor of Londonr- 
"The adaption of the Liveries to encompass modem-day needs and 
technology has been one of the most outstanding achievements in 
keeping alive the spirit of craftsmanship and professionalism on 
which this country is founded." 


I apologize for taking for granted that I had made it clear: 
before the adoption of the term "Freemason" as we know it today - 
this word was given to mean a man who was "free" or "free-born" and 
who was a mason or a stone-mason or a builder in stone in the old 
days. He was given the nomenclature of 'freemen mason' later 
shortened to "freemason" as was the term "master mason" used 
describing those who had served their apprenticeship, paid their dues 
or fees and were qualified and expert in their professional. Hence 
the term Freemason's Fraternity to which I have referred in the text 
of my talk. 

As stated in my reference to the Freemason the usage with 
reference to Masonry as we know it today came into being probably 
sometime in the late 17th Century and finally adopted with the 
formation of the Grand Lodges early in the 18th Century. At this 
time the affix "A.F.& A.M." (Ancient Free and Accepted Masons) 
came into being. 

The question as to "who did they serve?" is a good one- 
Initially they served their separate and autonomous groups or lodges. 
When the "outside" world realised the advantages and benefits of this 
system of "benefit societies" those who were outside the profession 
of the group or the lodge requested permission to join and for the 
payment of the necessary fees they were able to join - however there 
are still lodges in London which I presume restrict membership e.g., 
Chartered Accountants (3126), Chartered Architects (3244), London 
Mayors (3560), Municipal & County Engineers (3920), Oxford and 
Cambridge University (1118), Royal Air Force (7335), Westminster 
Bank (3647), and many more not only in Britain but in other parts 
of the world as well. 

Replying to V. Wor. John Lawer's Review— 

I am deeply grateful for the time taken and the scholarly 
approach John has given to my paper and would be glad to comment 
on the points he has raised:- 

1. He comments on "the theory of the transition of 
operative into speculative Masonry": 

My personal impression is that during the 17th - 18th 
Centuries there was a period when benevolence and charity came to 
the for-front. This situation within the Old Craft Gilds came to the 
notice of the "non-operative" men who were on the outside of the 
Guilds - Brentano covers the situation very ably in his writings:- "The 
object of the early Craft Guilds was to create relations as if among 


brothers: and above all things, to grant to their members that 
assistance which the members of a family might expect from that 
family. As men's wants became different, this assistance no longer 
concerned the protection of hfe, limbs and property, for this was 
provided for by the Old Frith Gilds as they were called, the principal 
of the Craft Guilds was to secure their members in the independent, 
unimpaired and regular earning of their daily bread by means of 
their Craft. Not unlike the apparent objective of present day unions. 

It will be appreciated that the kind of assistance and 
brotherhood demonstrated by the Craft guilds attracted the "non- 
operatives"-Naturally there was opposition in some areas against 
non-operatives best illustrated by a story from the early 1600s— "Many 
of the operatives did not view the introduction of the 'speculative' 
element with favour and at one time they were arrayed in hostile 
camps; but eventually those who supported the "Gentlemen" or 
"Geomative Masons" won the day, the "Domatics" of Operatives 
having to succumb. In Lodge of Aberdeen, Scotland, the majority in 
the A.D. 1670 were actually non-operative or "speculative" members" 
It was about this time that the tern "freemason" or "frie mesones" 
made its appearance being discovered in lodge minutes of December 
27, 1636. 

Concerning his question about the origin of the link between 
the Craft and the Guild- 
Some sources agree that the transition between the gild and 
the Craft was gradual (as stated in my paper) and not especially 
defined to any one particular date. Perhaps it was because of this 
inclusion of non-operatives that the "split" took place between the 
purely Operative Guilds such as my own Guild or Company which is 
restricted to members of my own "craft" and Freemasons' Lodges 
which are as we all know for the most part composed of and open to 
all men whether operative or speculative members. Could it be that 
Freemasonry is an off- shoot from the Old Guilds????? 

V. Wor. Lawer conmients in the final paragraph of his 
review about the series of ritual dramas well known in North 
American Freemasonry and which follow ancient forms-this I beheve 
could be the subject of another paper - 1 am sorry I did not touch on 
this vast and interesting topic in my paper. Perhaps someone may 
follow up on this subject and present it to us at some future time. 
Personally I am deeply grateful to those who have so ably made 
dramatic portrayals of all the degrees I have witnessed in Free- 
masonry; they have helped me to understand the ritual in a very 
reaUstic way. John Storey 



V*W, Bro. John V. Lawer 

Worshipful Master, R.W. Bro. Frank G. Dunn, and my 

Firstly, R.W. Sir, I do thank you for the privilege you have 
accorded me in inviting me to present this paper at the Eighth 
Annual Heritage Banquet. 

When I reflect upon the calibre of the brethren who have 
presented papers at the previous seven Annual Banquets I am both 
proud and humbled by your invitation. 

I am the more humble since I have chosen as my topic 
"WHENCE THE SCOTTISH RITE?" and I recognize that I am 
speaking a scant two weeks before that most distinguished masonic 
Scholar, Cyril Batham, Past Master of Quatuor Coronati Lodge No. 
2076, London England, is scheduled to deliver the Twelfth Annual 
Philalethes Lecture in Washington, and his subject will be "THE 

Like many of you I plan to be present to listen to his 
address, and I just hope I will not feel too embarrassed as I recall on 
that occasion my comments here tonight. 

The late Alben W. Barclay, Majority Leader of the United 
States Senate and later Vice President, said that it is impossible to 
give a good after-dinner speech unless the audience is exceptionally 
bright and half drunk. You certainly qualify for the first, but are 

* Paper presented at the Eighth Annual Heritage Banquet of The 
Heritage Lodge, held in the Banquet Hall of the York Masonic Temple, 
Toronto, January 29th, 1992. 


nowhere near passing his second test. It will, therefore, be imposs- 
ible for me to give a good address, so, by way of compensation I 
promise to be brief, - well, as brief as a lawyer ever can be. 

I want to say also, by way of apology, that given my interest 
in history, my involvement in so many branches of Freemasonry, - 
and especially, of course in the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, 
- and having been granted the privilege of being admitted to the 
Freedom of the City of London and to one of the City Livery 
Companies, I wish most sincerely that I could find the time to pursue 
in depth the thoughts I can only briefly and imperfectly for you 


The second objective of The Heritage Lodge as set forth in 
the 'Preface' to the Lodge By-Laws is said, in part, to be ''To promote 
the study of Masonry in general " 

The stated objective and, indeed, the very name itself of the 
lodge, is, I submit, sufficient excuse for me to choose as the subject 
of this paper, ''WHENCE THE SCOTTISH RITE?" 

The nineteenth century English Barrister, Historian and 
Antiquarian who did much to promote the study of Medieval History 
(1)*, Sir Francis Palgrave, once wrote that "^The fundamental rule of 
science, whether in history or elsewhere, is not what has been believed, 
but what is true." 

The entered apprentice is charged that the pursuit of truth 
is a sacred duty, and thus, having been willingly obligated, he can and 
should echo the words of the Psalmist, / have chosen the way of 
truth" (2). But 'what is truth?' - that, you will remember, was the 
question posed by Pilate to Jesus (3). 

In the context of this paper, what specifically is the truth of 
the origin, - the "Whence" - of the Scottish Rite?. 

In chapter one of The History of the Supreme Council 33 
Peg. Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry of Canada 
1874-1974 , it is said, "Prior to 1 80 1 ... The History of the Ancient and 
Accepted Scottish Rite is, at least in part, traditional, and in some 

* Numbers in brackets refer to corresponding numbers in the 'Biblio- 


measure disputed.'' That this is so should not be surprising since, 
although nowadays it is frequently said in our country that Masonry 
is a society with secrets and not a secrete society, oft times and 
elsewhere this has not been the case. In any event, such has seldom 
been its public image anywhere. 

Sometimes persecuted, more often regarded with inquietude 
by estabhshed authority, masonic intercourse has often perforce been 
carried on sub rosa. 

'In such circumstances masons could well empathize with the 
dictum of the 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury, the English Philosopher, who 
died in 1713, who said* ''that wise men were all of the same religion, 
and when asked what that religion was, replied that wise men never tell." 

Why should there be this suspicion if Freemasonry is, indeed, 
but a beautiful system of morality, veiled in allegory and illustrated 
by symbols? 

And why, when again as an entered apprentice we were 
called on to make a daily advancement in masonic knowledge, should 
our own origin be so cloaked in mystery? 

In recent years there has been renewed interest in the 
subject, although, strangely, those who have pursued this quest for 
knowledge have more often than not been non-masons. 

Traditionally Enghsh masonic scholars have accepted, or 
promoted, the theory that modern Freemasonry evolved from Guilds 
or Associations of operative masons consequent upon the acceptance 
into such organizations in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries 
of non-operatives or speculative masons. Such persons petitioned, it 
seems for membership either because they were attracted by the lofty 
ethical precepts inculcated in their members by these organizations, 
or for what perhaps, depending upon one's point of view, may have 
been the less laudable purpose of cloaking behind an apparently 
innocent facade the opportunity of discussing and promoting the 
ideas of the age of enlightenment which would ultimately sweep away 
the Old Order. 

I will return to this second suggestion later in this paper. 

Again the genesis of the higher degrees, which eventually 
evolved into the present degree system of the Scottish Rite, - and the 
term 'higher' is used here only in the sense of higher in numerical 


order and not with any connotation of relative superiority, - "has," to 
quote Brigadier A.C.F. Jackson, "never been satisfactorily settled." (4). 

There seems to be at least three theories. The first two are 
characterized by Jackson in the opening chapter, entitled "The Birth 
ofEcossais Masonry," in his " Rose Croix, A History of the Ancient and 
Accepted Rite for England and Wales. " (5). He refers to one as the 
EngHsh Theory and to the other as the French Story. 

Both of these versions place the origin of the degrees in the 
1730's or perhaps even shghtly earher. In the one, some at least of 
the high degrees were formulated in England, and France became 
their beneficiary as a result of the outpouring of English Free- 
masonry from about 1725. These degrees became particularly popular 
among EngHsh lodges in France whose members were supporters, 
many of them Scotsmen, and perhaps some Irishmen, of the exiled 
Stuart Pretenders to the British Crown. 

The French story sees the higher degrees as having actually 
been invented in France in lodges frequented by, mainly, Scottish 
Jacobites, and being called Scottish Degrees because of the National 
Origin of many of the lodge members, and to distinguish these 
degrees from the two, and subsequently three, degrees practised in 
EngHsh lodges. 

Perhaps the two theories are not mutually exclusive. There 
was a wide variety in the degrees as they proliferated, and their 
appearance coincided with a period when enlightened men, - the 
Speculatives attracted to the lodges of the day, - travelled frequently 
and engaged in social intercourse with each other between the two 
countries, following the cessation of hostiHties upon the signing of 
the Treaty of Utrech, the enactment of a liberal act of toleration in 
England, and the relaxation of censorship in France. Would it not be 
reasonable to beHeve that masons on both sides of the Channel were 
familiar with the existence and the working of some of the degrees 
whatever their origin? 

In any event the practice of higher degrees continued to be 
popular in France, and from there spread to Prussia and abroad to 
America. On the other hand, interest in such Scottish Degrees in 
England did not generally last very long. There may have been 
several reasons for their decline in popularity. One reason would 
almost certainly seem to have been their association with supporters 
of the Stuart cause. 


Harry Carr has noted in The Freemason at Work (6) that 
loyalty to the King, without treason or treachery, is prescribed in 
every version of the Old Charges, and the Cook Manuscript of Circa 
1410 enjoins Loyalty to the King of England and the Realm, llius 
any likelihood that the higher Scottish Degrees might spread in 
England was interrupted with the return of Bonnie Prince CharHe 
and the *45. 

Perhaps as a result of the rivalry, and in earlier centuries 
open hostihty, which has existed between England and Scotland, the 
English have been at pains to distance any close early relationship 
between Scotland and Freemasonry and certainly the high degrees. 
Although the word "Scottish" did appear on occasion following the 
establishment by Dr. Robert Thomas Crucifix of a Supreme Council 
for England and Wales by authority of a Patent dated October 26, 
1845 issued to him by the Supreme Council of the Northern Masonic 
Jurisdiction, U.S.A., the word does not appear in the Patent dated 
July 15, 1874 issued by the Supreme Council for England and Wales 
authorizing Thomas Douglas Harington to establish a Supreme 
Council for the Dominion of Canada (7). 

In 1909 the word "Scottish" was officially dropped from the 
title of the English Supreme Council (8), and in England and Wales 
the Rite is known as The Ancient and Accepted Rite. 

Brigadier Jackson says categorically as he nears the end of 
his chapter on the Birth of Ecossais Masonry, "In conclusion, it must 
be stressed that Scotland had no real connection with any kind of high 
degree masonry in spite of the way in which the term Scots or Ecossais 
were used during this period" (9), that is in the second quarter of the 
eighteenth century. 

The third theory would seem to have had its origin, or at 
least its first public appearance, in the oration dehvered by Chevalier 
Andrew Michael Ramsay before a lodge at Epernay in France on 
December 26, 1736. Ramsay's thesis was that masonry, although 
founded in remote antiquity, had been renewed by, to use his phrase, 
"Our Ancestors the Crusaders," and had been spread by them through- 
out Europe upon their return from the Holy Land. In particular he 
said it had been introduced into Scotland from France "because of the 
close alliance between the French and the Scotch." 

Whether or not the oration was repeated on March 21, 1737 
at Paris before the Grand Lodge of France of which he was Grand 
Chancellor, - Jackson says it was not (10). The official history, 
pubhshed by the Supreme Council of the Northern Masonic 


Jurisdiction says it was (11); Ramsay saw to it that his paper received 
wide circulation. And in France it met with enthusiastic response. 

Ramsay was himself born in Scotland in the 1680's, - the 
exact date is uncertain, apparently into a Calvinist family. However, 
he subsequently took up residence in France where he converted to 
Roman Catholicism. Tliere, and in Rome, he tutored the sons of 
Noble and Royal Families. One of his pupils was Charles fxlward 
Stuart, - the young pretender, Bonnie Prince Charlie. 

Jackson characterizes Ramsay*s theory, which joined 
Christian Knighthood with Masonry, as a "Completely fictitious story " 
(12). Frederick Smyth, in his Brethren in Chivalry 1791-1991 says the 
connection is "Without historical foundation." (13). 

Nevertheless, the story has persisted for a quarter of a 
millennium. Since at least the time of Baron Von Hund and his Rite 
of Strict Observance, which flourished in the latter half of the 19th 
Century. The story has been associated specifically with the Order of 
the Poor Knights of Christ and the Temple of Solomon, - The 
Knights Templar. And it is this connection which continues to 
tantalize the minds today of contemporary non-masonic authors, such 
as Michael Baigent, Richard Leigh and Henry Lincoln, John J. 
Robinson and Michael Bradley. 

Joseph Fort Newton in The Builders refers in a note to a 
reference in history of Freemasonry and Concordant Orders by 
Hughan and Stillson to a statement in ReaHties of Masonry by Blake, 
to the effect that while the theory of the descent of masonry from 
the Order of the Temple is untenable, a connection between the two 
societies, in the sense in which an artist may be said to be connected 
with his employer, is more than probable (14). 

Does this observation furnish us, perhaps, with a clue we 
should pursue as we seek the "Whence" of the Scottish Rite? 

I am not unmindful of the lecture which cautions not to 
endeavour to make many little circumstances, that weigh nothing 
separately, weigh much together. 

Nevertheless, I am impressed by the submission made by the 
authors of The Holy Blood and The Holy Grail that "What is 
necessary is an interdisciplinary approach to one's chosen material," - 
in short, a willingness to synthesize, - "For only by such synthesis can 
one discern the underlying continuity, the unified and coherent fabric, 
which lies at the core of any historical problem" (15). 


Pursuing, then, the suggestion noted by Newton of a possible 
connection between Masonry and the Order of the Temple, one finds 
the positive assertion by Michael Bradley in the Columbus conspiracy 

published just last year that, "// seems that Templars were behind 

the short-lived phenomenon of gothic-styled cathedral building." (16). 

Bradley notes that all the great gothic cathedrals were 
constructed only during the 194 years of Templar ascendancy in 
Europe. He makes several other interesting observations. He says 
that a number of scholars of architecture have found that these 
cathedrals conform to an unvarying canon of design, apparently 
derived from an Egyptian source, but found also in the plan of the 
temple of Solomon. Here we pause to recall that Baldwin II, King of 
Jerusalem, granted the Order quarters on the site of King Solomon's 
Temple in Jerusalem and from this they took, in part, their name, - 
The Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and the Temple of 

Again to quote Bradley, "Aside from the Architectural Canon, 
the financing of these cathedrals is believed to have been made possible 
by Templar money. We find that a Templar Priory was located very near 
to every *NOTRE DAME* ever built, sometimes within the shadow of the 
spires. One of the major mysteries about the sudden spate of cathedral- 
building is how, at the time, towns could afford to raise them. The cost 
of Salisbury Cathedral, as just one example, was far beyond the fiscal 
resources of medieval Salisbury's small population. The money, and the 
organization of Master Masons, must have come from some outside 
source. It seems that the gothic "Notre Dames" all over Europe, in Cities 
and smaller Towns alike, were raised by a travelling corps of master 
masons and architects employed to construct a concealed message in 
stone and paid for by Templar Money." (17). In this regard it must be 
remembered that as the crusades declined, the Templars became the 
bankers of the Mediterranean World and beyond, carrying goods in 
their own fleet of ships and handling the transfer of large sums. 

I find it of some interest that Bradley should take Sahsbury 
as his example since the cathedral was finished in only thirty-eight 
years, and when it was consecrated in 1258, it became the first 
example of pure, unmixed gothic style in England (18). 

Joseph Fort Newton would again agree with some at least of 
Michael Bradley's comments. Newton writes that the cathedral- 
builders were quite distinct from the Guild-masons, the one being a 
universal order whereas the other was local and restricted. Older 
than Guild-masonry, the order of the cathedral-builders was more 
powerful, more artistic, and, it may be added, more religious. He 


continues "...during the building period the order of Masons was at the 
height of its influence and power. At that time the building art stood 
above all other arts, and made the other arts bow to it, commanding the 
services of the most brilliant intellects and of the greatest artists of the 
age." (19). 

Further, Newton quotes from a non-mason, James Dallaway, 
Architecture in England , that "The honor due to the original founders 
of these edifices is almost invariably transferred to the ecclesiastics under 
whose patronage they rose, rather than to the skill and design of the 
master mason, or professional architect, because the only historians were 
monks." (20). 

Newton does not mention the question posed by the author 
of the Columbus Conspiracy and by the authors of the Holy Blood 
and the Holy Grail as to whom our lady really may have been in the 
dedication of the gothic cathedrals to Notre Dame. 

But Newton does refer to what he calls the cartoons in stone 
which portrayed, with searching satire, abuses current in the medieval 
church. He quotes in a note from a list compiled by Fin del, History 
of Masonry , where that author refers to some carvings which have 
obvious masonic allusions, and concludes with the comment, "These 
bold strokes which even heretics hardly dared to indulge in." (21). 

Perhaps, the Templars over indulged, for when Philippe IV 
of France, - Philippe the Fair, - Moved swiftly and decisively against 
the order in his dominion at dawn on Friday October 13, 1307, the 
alleged excuse was their heresy. Despite the zealous efforts of the 
holy office of the Inquisition during the years which followed until 
the Grand Master, Jacques de Molay was roasted to death over a 
slow fire on the Isle of Jews in the Seine at Paris on March 18, 1314, 
the verdict of history in relation to the charge remains the Scottish 
verdict, - not proven. 

Despite Philippe's success in suppressing the order in France, 
many individual Templars, and the entire Templar fleet, based at La 
Rochelle, escaped his dragnet. While Frederick Smyth rejects what 
he calls the bait so temptingly offered by Michael Baigent and 
Richard Leigh in The Temple and the Lodge that some of the fleet 
sailed to safe haven in those parts of Scotland controlled by Robert 
the Bruce, there seems httle doubt that English and French as well 
as Scottish Templars helped to defeat the English forces under 
Edward II at Bannockburn on June 24, 1314. 


The Papal Bull of 1312 suppressing the order was never 
proclaimed in the Scotland controlled by Robert the Bruce, while in 
England Edward II, who is alleged to have wrought as a craftsman 
with his companions at night, moved but slowly against the Order. 
Although their properties passed to the hospitallers, their persons 
were not subjected to the torture inflicted upon a large number of 
members in France. 

John J. Robinson in his Born in Blood, The Lost Secrets of 
Freemasonry , published in 1989, sets out to demonstrate how many 
terms used in the Craft, and the clothing worn by its members, 
otherwise difficult to comprehend, are explicable if one considers 
them in relation to the language, dress and customs of the Knights 

A.C.F. Jackson in his Rose Croix comments that the Old 
Charges "... with their slightly ridiculous codes of conduct designed for 
medieval workman..." can only have appeared to the speculatives who 
began entering the Craft in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries 
"... as comical as they do now to us." (23). 

Robinson does not view the Old Charges in such a Ught at 
all. He views them as a set of instructions for a secrete society 
created to assist and protect fraternal brothers on the run and in 
hiding from the church. The fugitive Templars would have needed a 
code such as the Old Charges of masonry, but the working stone- 
masons clearly did not (24). The need for signs of recognition is even 
more obvious. 

Newton notes that while at this distance in time the middle 
ages wear an aspect of smooth uniformity of faith and opinion, in 
reality what looks like uniformity was only conformity and under- 
neath its surface were many secret societies keeping their beliefs 

Robinson comments that some dissidents run for the woods 
and hide, while others organize. In the case of the fugitive Knights 
Templar, the organization already existed. The church which had 
fought for a position of supremacy in a feudal context was slow to 
accept changes that might affect that supremacy, defining any 
disagreement with its tenets as heresy. In its bloody rejection of 
protest and change it provided organizations like the Knights 
Templar with a river of recruits that flowed on for centuries. 


But while men may ask their opinions from the profane they 
cannot easily hide their bodies in the woods for their entire lives. 


While various solutions might be found, many Templars may have 
done what their preceptor in Lorraine reputedly advised them to do, 
- shave their beards, don secular garb and assimilate themselves into 
the local populace. 

In The Temple and the Lodge , Michael Baigent and Richard 
Leigh say that before their formal dissolution the Templars spon- 
sored their own Guilds. They also acted as patrons and protectors for 
other Guilds of Craftsmen and Stonemasons, and appear, on 
occasion to have become members of such Guilds themselves. On 
occasion, too, skilled artisans would be taken in as ^Associates' of the 
Order (25). They refer to the comment in Aitken The Knights 
Templar in Scotland , that there the commercial activities of the 
Templars had reached such a point that they were threatening the 
well-being of the Trade Guild members. A law was passed to ensure 
that "... no Templar should meddle in buying or selling goods belonging 
to the Guild unless he were a Guild member.'' As the Templars did not 
curtail their commercial activities, it follows that some must have 
joined the relevant Guilds. 

Since a Guild was not an Association of workers, but rather 
an Association of entrepreneurial owners, it should not have proved 
too distressing for a Knight to have adapted to this role, particularly 
as a plausible cover story. To quote Robinson, "/f would not be at all 
unusual for a secret society whose central ritual involved the allegorical 
building of the Temple of Solomon to gradually assume the cover story 
of being actual builders.'' (26). 

One of Robinson's theses is that the Great Society apparent- 
ly behind the Peasant's Revolt in England in 1381 was, indeed, the 
Knights Templar. While it may only be a coincidence it is interesting 
to observe that while the Mason's Company in London was not 
incorporated until about 1410, it appears to have come into existence 
following a merger between two separate companies which existed in 
London at least as early as 1379, - Freemasons and Masons. 

Not all of the Knights would have followed this course. 
There is the legend recounted by the authors of The Holy Blood and 
The Holy Grail that the Order which fought beside Robert the Bruce 
at Bannockburn maintained itself as a coherent body in Scotland for 
another Four Centuries. 

They refer to the account recorded by Waite, New Encyclo- 
pedia of Freemasonry , that at the battle of KiUiecrankie in 1689, 
John Graham of Claverhouse, Viscount Dundee, the leader of the 
Stuart cause, was killed on the field of battle. When his body was 


recovered he was reportedly found to be wearing the Grand Cross of 
the Order of the Temple, - not a recent device supposedly, but one 
dating from before 1307 (27). 

The story is one with which Andrew Michael Ramsay would 
almost surely have been familiar. And, again, while it may only be 
coincidental, the first of the Papal Bulls against Freemasonry - In 
Eminenti, promulgated in the name of Pope Clement XIII, - after 
Freemasonry became public, so to speak, with the formation of the 
premier Grand Lodge in London in 1717, was, in fact, issued in 1738, 
- only a little more than one year after Ramsay first delivered his 
oration in France. 

As mentioned earlier in this paper the degrees of the 
Scottish Rite spread to America from France. There is Httle doubt 
that the Southern, or Mother, Jurisdiction of the Ancient And 
Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry of the United States, with its 
headquarters in The House of The Temple in Washington, and 
which dates from 1801, accepts the theory of descent from the Order 
of the Temple. 

The degrees conferred in the Consistory of the Scottish Rite, 
at least in America, are usually referred to as Chivalric Degrees. The 
30th Deg. is said to have originated at Lyons, France, in 1741, - an 
area which was a hotbed of Templar activity even after the formal 
suppression of the Order, represents the vengeance of the Order. 
Prominently displayed in the Degree is the black and white Beau 
Scant, the banner of the Knights Templar, - which, incidently 
Robinson claims is the origin of the masonic mosaic pavement (28). 

It is to be noted that the 29th Deg. of our system is styled 
Knight of St Andrew or Patriarch of the Crusades. 

Brethren, in conclusion, I would ask you to remember that 
it is what we think we know already that prevents us from learning. 

On the other hand, - A favourite Lawyer's expression, - I 
hope you will not think a quote attributed to Mark Twain is 
appropriate to my paper: ''The researches of many commentators have 
already thrown much darkness on this subject, and it is probable that, 
if they continue, we shall soon know nothing at all about it." (29). 



1. The Oxford Companion to English Literature . 5th Edition, Ed. 
Margaret Drabble, p. 731. 

2. Psalm 119:30 KJV. 

3. John 18:38 KJV. 

4. A.C.F. Jackson: Rose Croix: A History of the Ancient and 
Accepted Rite for England and Wales, Second Edition, 1987, p. 3. 

5. Jackson, Op. Cit., pp. 3-15. 

6. Harry Carr: The Freemason at Work , Revised Edition, p. 34. 

7. The History of the Supreme Council 33 E)eg. Ancient and 
Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry of Canada, 1874 - 1974 . 
pp. 28-30. 

8. Jackson, Op. Cit., p. XII. 

9. Jackson, Op. Cit., p. 14. 

10. Jackson, Op. Cit., p.l2. 

11. A History of the Supreme Council. 33 Peg. A.A.S.R., N.MJ., 
U.S.A. . P.28. 

12. Jackson, Op. Cit., p.l2 

13. Frederick Smyth: Brethren in Chivalry 1791-1991 . A Celebration 
of the two hundred years of the Great Prioiy of the United 
Religious, Military and Masonic Orders of the Temple and of St. 
John of Jerusalem, Palestine, Rhodes and Malta of England and 
Wales and Provinces Overseas, p. 14. 

14. Joseph Fort Newton: The Builders . Revised and Enlarged Edition, 
1951, p. 95. 

15. Michael Baigent, Richard Leigh and Henry Lincoln: The Holy 
Blood and The Holy Grail , p. 273. 

16. Michael Bradley: The Columbus Conspiracy , p. 48. 

17. Michael Bradley, Op. Cit., pp. 48-49. 

18. The Horizon Book of Great Cathedrals , p. 144. 

19. Joseph Fort Newton, Op. Cit., p. 92. 

20. Joseph Fort Newton, Op. Cit., p. 93. 

21. Ibid, p. 93. 

22. The Oxford Book of Royal Anecdotes . 

23. Jackson, Op. Cit., p.4. 


24. John J. Robinson: Bom In Blood, The Lost Secrets of Free- 
masonry , p. XVI. 

25. Michael Baigent and Richard Leigh: The Temple and the Lodge , 
p. 136. 

26. Robinson, Op. Cit., p. 190. 

27. Baigent, Leigh, and Lincoln, Op. Cit., pp. 48-49. 

28. Robinson, Op. Cit., p. 238. 

29. As quoted in Reader^s Digest, February 1992, p. 97, Article - Who 
Really Discovered the New World - Condensed from Smithonian, 
by Donald Dale Jackson. 

John V. Lawer 

When I was a King and a Mason- 

A master proved and skilled, 
I cleared me ground for a palace 

Such as a King should build, 
I decreed and cut down to my levels, 

Presently, under the silt, 
I came on the wreck of a palace 

Such as a King had built. 

- Kipling 


Statesman, S<ddier and Freemason * 

W. Bro, Nelson King 

Worshipful Master, Right Worshipful The Deputy Grand Master, 
Officers & Members of The Heritage Lodge and Distinguished 

Thank you W. Bro. Garrett for your most kind and generous 
introduction, I can only hope that Revenue Canada does not know 
as much about me, as you appear to. 

Thank you Worshipful Master, and the members of The Heritage 
Lodge for affording me the opportunity to present my paper Vohn 
Graves Simcoe, Statesman, Soldier and Freemason" to this august body 
of Freemasons. 

Also, thank you Worshipful Brother Garrett for allowing us to 
join in the celebration of Niagara 2's Bicentennial Year. This evening 
is made the more especial by the presence of our Deputy Grand 
Master, R.W. Bro. C. Edwin Drew. 

We Canadians are normally very reserved about our heroes, but 
we do have our quiet heroes, who were Statesmen, Soldiers and 
Freemasons. One such man Metropolitan Toronto, and several other 
Ontario Communities honour on the first Monday in August, by 
proclaiming that day a Civic Holiday, Simcoe Day. 

* Paper presented at the Regular Meeting of The Heritage Lodge held 
in the Masonic Hall of Niagara Lodge No. 2, A.F.& A.M., G.R.C., 
Niagara- on-the-Lake, March 18, 1992, on the occasion of their 
Bicentennial Anniversary. 


John Graves Simcoe was born on the 25th day of February 1752, 
at Cotterstock, Northamptonshire, the son of Captain John Simcoe, 
R.N., and Catherine Stamford. Captain Simcoe and his wife had 
moved to Cotterstock shortly after their marriage on the 8th day of 
August, 1747. It was in Cotterstock that their four sons were born. 
The first two, Paulet WilHam and John, died in infancy and the 
fourth, Percy WiUiam, was drowned in 1764. John Graves, the third 
son, was named after his father and his godfather. Admiral Sir 
Thomas Graves. In 1757, Captain Simcoe joined H.M.S. Pembroke, 
as Commander, with the famous explorer Captain James Cook as 
Master, and in 1759 sailed for Canada in the fleet under the 
command of Admiral Saunders. Captain Simcoe was not to reap the 
rewards of his years of service, for on the 15th day of May 1759, 
while H.M.S. Pembroke was nearing the Island of Anticosti, he died 
of pneumonia. Mrs. Catherine Simcoe then moved to Exeter, where 
she had many friends and where she would be better able to educate 
her two sons. 

The future Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada received his 
primary education at the Free Grammar School in Exeter, and in 
1766, his fifteenth year, he entered Eton. In 1769 he went to Merton 
College, Oxford, but does not appear to have graduated, for in the 
years 1770-1771 he was at his mother's home in Exeter under the 
guidance of a tutor. These years were spent in acquiring a general 
knowledge, and especially in studying military tactics, for he had 
been promised an ensign's commission from friends of his mother in 
the War Office. 

The muster rolls of the 35th Foot show that Simcoe entered the 
army soon after his eighteenth birthday, for on the 27th of April, 
1770 he was gazetted an Ensign in Captain William GauU's company 
and stationed at Plymouth. In 1773, while back in Exeter, Adjutant 
Simcoe was initiated into Union Lodge No. 307, E.R. [Moderns]. 
The Lodge record reads as follows: 

"Towards the end of 1773, several fresh candidates were admitted. 
Amongst them was Peter Davis Foulks, Esq., Sir William Prideaux, Mr. 
Savery and Mr. John Graves Simcoe; also henry Brown, Esq., 20th 
Regiment, was proposed, balloted for and accepted, and being a case of 
emergency was made E.A. and F.C. etc." 


As a matter of interest this Lodge is the oldest Lodge in the 
L Province of Devonshire, and has worked since 1732. The Lodge has 
had various names, Union Lodge, St. John Lodge, and its final and 
present name, which it has held since 1821, St. John the Baptist 
Lodge No. 39. As a matter of fact, our Past Grand Master M.W. 
Bro. John Ross Robertson secured the gavel that was used at Bro. 
Simcoe*s initiation, and it was used by M.W. Bro. Augustus T. Freed, 
when he opened our Grand Lodge at Niagara in 1909. 

Simcoe now progressed steadily through the ranks of the military 
until the 27th of December 1775, when he was promoted to the rank 
of Captain and permitted to purchase command of the Grenadier 
Company of the 40th Foot; with it he sailed for Halifax in March of 

1776, Early in July 1776 he landed on Staten Island, New York, and 
I with his Regiment took part in the military operations in Long Island 

and the Jerseys, winning many commendations for his services. 

While in winter quarters at Brunswick, in 1776-1777, he went to 
New York to see Sir William Howe, to ask for the command of the 
Queen*s Rangers, then vacant. Unfortunately his ship was driven off 
course by a severe storm and was delayed, and on his arrival in New 
York he found that the post had been filled. With his ambition for 
an independent command unsatisfied, he wrote to General Grant 
under whom he was serving, and asked if Grant would use his 
' influence to secure for him a command similar to that of the Queen's 
Rangers, should such another corps be raised. Shortly afterward he 
led his company at the Battle of Brandywine and received a wound 
from which he never fully recovered, although he was able to resume 
his auties. 

At last his ambitions were realized, for on the 15 th of October, 

1777, Captain Simcoe was appointed Major-Commandant of the 
Queen's Rangers and on the 18th joined his new command, then 
encamped near Germantown, just north of Philadelphia. In June 

1778, he was granted the provincial rank of Lieutenant-Colontl and 
on the 19th of December 1781, his rank was made permanent in the 


At about this time, an advertisement was printed in the Riving- 
ton*s Royal Gazette, which read: 


All Aspiring Heroes 

Have now an opportunity of distinguishing them- 
selves by joining the Queen's Rangers Huzzars, 
commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Simcoe. Any 
spirited young man will receive every encouragem- 
ent, be immediately mounted on an elegant horse, 
and furnished with clothing, accoutrements, etc., to 
the amount of Forty Guineas, by applying to Cornet 
Spencer at his quarters, 1033 Water Street, or his 
rendezvous Hewitts Tavern, near the Coffee House, 
and the depot at Brandywine on Golden Hill. 

Whosoever brings a Recruit shall instantly receive 
Two Guineas. 

Vivant Rex et Regina 

In December 1781, Lieutenant-Colonel Simcoe returned to 
England and on 30th of December 1782 married Elizabeth Posthuma 
Gwillim, then in her seventeenth year, at the church of St. Mary and 
Giles in the parish of Buckerall, Devon. On the 14th of January 
1783, Simcoe was released from his parole which he had given to the 
United States when he was captured in 1781. The release was 
granted by Benjamin Franklin, the Minister Plenipotentiary from the 
United States, to the Court of France. 

On the 18th of November 1790, Simcoe was granted the rank of 
Colonel in the Army, and during the same year was elected to Parlia- 
ment as member for the borough of St. Mawes in Cornwall. During 
his brief poHtical career, he was able to take an important part in the 
debates culminating in the passage of the Constitutional Act of 1791, 
which divided Canada into two provinces of Upper and Lower 
Canada. In the same year he received a commission as Lieutenant- 
Governor of the new province of Upper Canada, and in accepting 
the post of Lieutenant-Governor, he asked that troops be allotted to 
the new province. He was then instructed to reorganize The Queen's 
Rangers. Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe, accompanied by his wife and 
two of their children sailed for Quebec, on the 26 of September 1791 


on board H. M.S.Triton. Before sailing he was offered by the War 
Office the rank of Brigadier-General, but for various reasons he 
declined; one reason was his disinclination to have seniority over the 
King's son, the Duke of Kent, then in command of the 7th Fusiliers 
at Quebec. 

H.M.S. Triton arrived at Quebec on the 11th of November 1791, 
and on the following day Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe delivered the 
various commissions with which he had been entrusted, to the acting 
Governor-General, Major-General Alured Clarke. Major-General 
Clarke was acting as administrator during the absence of Lord 
Dorchester, who was in England. The official proclamation and the 
text of the Act dividing the old province of Canada, into the new 
provinces of Upper and Lower Canada was issued on the 18th of 
November 1791, and was published in the Quebec Gazette of 
December 1st. 

In December of 1791, Simcoe had paid a short visit to Montreal 
but he went no further west. On the 8th of June 1792, with his wife 
and children he left Quebec, Lower Canada, for Kingston, Upper 
Canada, in a bateau. They arrived in Montreal on the 17th, left on 
the 27th, and reached Kingston on 1st of July. On the 8th of July, 
Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe was sworn into office by Chief Justice 
WiUiam Osgoode. 

From Kingston, Governor Simcoe and his family sailed on the 
Government Schooner Onondaga for Newark [Niagara], where they 
arrived on the 26th of July. Pending completion of repairs to Navy 
Hall, the Governor and his party were housed in marquees pitched 
on the hill above the Hall. 

In February of 1793, the Governor visited the western parts of 
his province. The party proceeded to a Mohawk village on the Grand 
River [Brantford], then to the Moravian settlement of the Delaware 
Indians [Moraviantown], and returned by way of the present site of 
London, Ontario, which at a later date Simcoe recommended as a 
proper place for the Capital of the province. However, on the 2nd of 
May he visited the site of Toronto for the first time. He returned to 
Navy Hall on the 13th and spoke in praise of the harbour and "a fine 
spot near it covered with large oaks", which he intended as a site for 


a town. This fine spot was on the bay front, east of the present 
George Street extending as far as Berkeley Street. 

The Upper Canada Gazette of the 1st of August, 1793, has the 

"A few days ago, the first division of His Majesty's 
Corps of Queen's Rangers, left Queenston for Toronto 
[now York], and proceeded in a bateaux round the 
head of Lake Ontario, by Burlington Bay, and shortly 
afterwards another division of the same regiment 
sailed in the King's vessels, Onondaga and Caldwell 
for the same place. On Monday evening. His Excell- 
ency, the Lieut.-Govemor left Navy Hall and 
embarked on board His Majesty's schooner, Missis- 
sauga, which sailed under a favourable gale for York 
with the remainder of the Queen's Rangers on board". 

Mrs. Simcoe in her diary under the date of 30th of July 1793, 

"The Queen's Rangers are encamped opposite to the 
ship. After dinner we went on shore to fix a spot 
whereon to place the canvas houses, and we chose a 
rising ground divided by a creek from the camp, which 
is ordered to be cleared immediately. The soldiers have 
cut down a great deal of wood to enable them to pitch 
their tents. We went in boat two miles to the bottom of 
the bay, and walked through a grove of fine oaks, 
where the town is intended to be built. A low spit of 
land, covered with wood, forms the bay, and breaks 
the horizon of the lake which greatly improves the 
view, which indeed is very pleasing. The water in the 
bay is beautifully clear and transparent". 

Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe wrote on the 23rd of August 1793: 

'7 have determined to hut the Queen 's Rangers, and 
probably to remain this winter at this place. It pos- 
sesses many eminent advantages, which I shall do 
myself the honor of expatiation on, by the 1st oppor- 


(unity, and expatiating on such places as appear 
necessary to me for permanent barracks, and fortifica- 
tions to be erected, adapted to present circumstances, 
but which may be increased, if it shall become necess- 
ary, and, at least expense, be rendered more impreg- 
nable than any place I have seen in North America''. 

Later in the year, on the 20th of September 1793, he wrote: 

''Upon the first news of the rupture with France I 
determined to withdraw the Queen's Rangers from the 
unhealthy vicinity of Niagara where they were 
encamped and to occupy York. I submitted to the 
Commander-in-Chief my intentions and desired his 
sanction to authorize me to construct a block house to 
defend the entrance to the Harbour". 

WilHam Jarvis, Substitute Provincial Grand Master of Upper 
Canada E.R. [Ancients], and the first Provincial Secretary of Upper 
Canada had previously granted a warrant [even though he was not 
authorized to do so] for Lodge No. 3 The Queen's Rangers, 1st 
American Regiment and they had held meetings at Butler's Barracks, 
in Newark. This warrant was a travelHng warrant, and was now 
transferred to York, with the Queen's Rangers. 

In December of 1793, Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe, communi- 
cated the fact of the removal of the Rangers to York. The document, 
addressed to Lord Dorchester, the Governor-General, is as follows: 

"Should I have the pleasure of seeing your Lordship at 
this place, I make no doubt but the arrangement of 
the log huts for the Queen 's Rangers, and the public 
store I shall build the ensuing Spring on Pt. Gibraltar, 
will be such as, in your Lordship's estimation, with a 
due proportion of artillery and an equal garrison, will 
appear to be more defensible that Detroit, and scarcely 
less so than Niagara. 

J. G. Simcoe". 


The log huts for the Rangers were erected on the left side of the 
eastern entrance to the present fort at Toronto. It was in one of 
these log huts that the Queens Ranger's Lodge No. 3 met. It is said 
Simcoe did not look with unfriendly eyes on the meeting of Crafts- 
men which took place month after month in his regiment, even 
though he could not himself attend the meetings, s he was a member 
of the "Moderns" Grand Lodge, and Lodge No. 3, Queens Rangers 
was warranted under the "Ancients" Grand Lodge. It is interesting to 
note that this site is where the Toronto Historical Board has recently 
unearthed fragments of clay tobacco pipe bowls, this is not in itself 
unusual, but these fragments are fragments of clay tobacco pipe 
bowls with Masonic designs. On the left side of the bowl there is the 
Square and Compasses, with the letter G in the centre, five pointed 
stars, a pentagram, and laurel leaves or acacia leaves. On the other 
side of the bowl is a standing bird with either one or two wings 

The Governor-General, Lord Dorchester, and Lieutenant- 
Governor Simcoe, where not the best of friends, and the friction 
between them did not cease until both of them left Canada in 1796. 
Indeed it looked as if Dorchester had determined to make Simcoe*s 
life as uncomfortable as possible. Official correspondence shows that 
Dorchester seized every opportunity to clog the wheels of Simcoe*s 
government, and often in a manner most mortifying to Simcoe. 
Simcoe had not forgotten "the unjust, humiliating and disgraceful" 
order, as he termed it, of Sir Guy Carleton, [as Dorchester was in 
1783], concerning a charge made against the Queen's Rangers as 
being guilty of "plundering and marauding" on Long Island Sound 
during the War of Revolution, a charge, by the way, that was without 
foundation. The continued friction between the two led to the 
resignation of both in the usual form of "leave of absence". The 
Simcoes said farewell to Upper Canada on 21st of July 1796, and on 
the 10th of September, they sailed from Quebec on H.M.S. Pearl for 

At this time the British Government wanted an officer to take 
charge of the forces in San Domingo. Lord Simcoe who had been 
gazetted Major-General on the 2nd of October 1794, and was now 
offered the post if he would prefer it to retaining his appointment in 
Upper Canada. Simcoe accepted the new position and on the 3rd of 
December 1796, was appointed Civil Governor and thought he was 


to be Commander-in-Chief of the British forces in San Domingo. 
Simcoe was disappointed for he had expected to succeed Sir Ralph 
Abercrombie as Commander-in-Chief of all the forces in the Island, 
but now found that Abercrombie retained that office. In a letter to 
the Duke of Kent, he refers to this disappointment and also points 
out that his "services in Canada had been slighted in that as 
Lieutenant-Governor he had a fair claim to the command of the 
Royal Americans in preference to General Hunter". The same letter 
further shows that he had been promised the position of Governor- 
General of Canada and also a peerage. 

In 1797 General Simcoe proceeded to his new post, with 
instructions to aid the French in restoring, if possible, order to the 
Island. While the General did excellent work in his command, he 
became wearied of the kind of warfare in which he was engaged and 
after eight months he returned to England, either to procure an 
adequate force for the work or to abandon the effort altogether. 
From the 18th of January to the 18th of June 1798, he was Colonel 
of the 81st Regiment and on the latter date was appointed Colonel 
of the 22nd Foot, which appointment he held until his death in 1806. 
Lx)rd Simcoe did not return to San Domingo, and on the 26th of 
February 1798, he was appointed Lieutenant of the County of 
Devon, and in the following October was gazetted Lieutenant- 

Owing to the fear of invasion by Napoleon, the forces of England 
were strengthened in 1799, and on the 21st of November of that year 
Lieutenant-General Simcoe was appointed to the command of 
Plymouth. On the 1st of January 1801, he was appointed to serve on 
the Staff of the Army in Great Britain, and in the same month was 
commissioned to command the Western District, which included the 
counties of Somerset, Devon and Cornwall. On the 14th of May 
1803, he was again appointed to the Army Staff in Great Britain. 

In July, 1806 General Simcoe was appointed Commander-in- 
Chief of the British forces in India, and at once began preparations 
for departure for his distant command. While in the middle of 
packing, an entire change of plan came from the authorities in 
London. Information had been received that Napoleon was contem- 
plating an invasion of Portugal. The fleet under Earl St. Vincent, 


then cruising off Brest, was ordered to the Tagus, while Lord Rosslyn 
and General Simcoe were ordered to join the Earl at Lisbon. 

Simcoe had been in poor health for some time, and it was only 
by exercising the greatest care that he was able to cover the great 
amount of work assigned to him in the Western District. He was so 
confident of his physical strength that he did not hesitate to accept 
the command in India when it was offered. Indeed it was expected 
that after completing the negotiations he was to carry out in Lisbon, 
he would return to England and then sail for India. 

He took ill on the voyage to Lisbon and had to return to 
England. After some delay he sailed on 26th of September, 1806, on 
H.M.S. Illustrious, and on the 21st of October, landed at Topsham. 
The next day he was carefully driven to the house of his friend. 
Archdeacon Moore in Exeter. He was too ill to make the journey to 
WoL^ord, and the following Sunday the 26th, the General passed to 
the Grand Lodge above. 

The body was embalmed and kept in Exeter until the 4th of 
November, in order that the funeral arrangements might be perf- 
ected. It was an imposing funeral and every mark of respect was paid 
by civil and military authorities alike. Along the fourteen miles 
between Exeter and Wolford the cortege passed between lines of the 
militia of Devon. At the third mile a squadron of Dragoons was 
drawn up and escorted the remains to Wolford. At six o'clock m the 
evening the burial took place by torchlight in the presence of his 
widow and family and the leading men of the country. The remains 
were interred at the east end of the private chapel, erected by the 
General on his estate. The inscription on his monument reads: 

"Sacred to the memory of John Graves Simcoe, Lt. 
Gen. in the Army and Col. of the 22nd Regt. of Foot, 
who died on the 26th day of October, 1806 aged 54. 

In whose life and character the virtues of the Hero, the Patriot 
and the Christian were so eminently conspicuous, that it may 
be justly said he served his King, and his Country with a zeal 
exceeded only by his piety towards his God." 


I can find no record of Masonic Funeral Honours being paid to 
our Lieutenant-Governor. 

Thus ended the life of this great man, hero of the Revolutionary 
War, the Founder of Ontario, Lieutenant-Governor John Graves 
Simcoe, Statesman, Soldier and Freemason. We do well to recall his 
exploits in loving memory every August. 



The Queens Rangers in the Revolutionary War 

Colonel C.J. Inglis, D.S.O., V.D. [Published, Toronto, 
Ontario, 1956] 

The Queens Rangers in Upper Canada 

Author unknown, Toronto Historical Board copy 

The History of Freemasonry in Canada 

J. Ross. Robertson [PubUshed, Toronto, Ontario, 1900] 

Canadian Masonic Research Association Papers 

John Graves Simcoe by R.V. Harris [PubHshed by The 
Heritage Lodge G.R.C., 1986] 

A History of the Grand Lodge A.F.& A.M. of Canada in the Province 
of Ontario 1855-1955 

Walter S. Herrington and Roy S. Foley [Published by The 
Grand Lodge of Canada, Toronto, 1955] 

Masonic Halls of England [The South] 

The Rev*d N.B. Cryer [Published by Lewis Masonic, Engl- 
and, 1989] 

ARS Quatuor Coronatorum 

Vol. XL 1927, pages 251 and 260 [Published, England, 1928] 



Toronto Historical Board [Fort York] 
Timothy M. Sequin 

Queens York Rangers Museum 

Major Stewart H. Bull [Retired] 

Nelson King 



W. Bro. Nelson King 


FIRST REVIEW - was prepared by W. Bro. Stewart Greavette, 
and presented by R.W. Bro. Charles E. Sankey. 

I would first thank the lodge for the opportunity to read Bro. 
Nelson King's paper on John Graves Simcoe before its presentation 
here tonight and to react to it at this meeting of The Heritage 

Simcoe is one of several characters who have become synony- 
mous with grand events which occurred during this era of our 
Canadian history; others of course include John Butler, Isaac Brock 
and Laura Secord. As a resident of the Niagara peninsula, I have 
developed more than a passing interest in the history of the region 
and have spent many pleasant hours exploring the sites of the 


historical events that are well documented in pubUcations outlining 
our heritage. John Graves Simcoe and his wife quickly became 
favourites and, as I do not have a knowledge of Simcoe to the extent 
shown by Bro. King, I have appreciated the opportunity to follow 
Simcoe's life with the author. 

It is obvious from the paper that its intent is principally to focus 
on a character who for a brief but important time resided in Upper 
Canada and on happenings which to some significant extent took 
place here in Niagara. It is not, nor was it apparently intended to be, 
a paper whose major focus was Freemasonry. That of course does 
not make it less meaningful to this lodge, as the fraternity must not 
look only inward but at times celebrate those whose major influence 
was outside Masonry but who were able to demonstrate by their 
actions the precepts taught in their lodge. 

It must be assumed that Simcoe was in attendance on many 
occasions in the first Freemasons Hall in Upper Canada built on this 
very spot. He would have worshipped, held public meetings, 
conferred with the native peoples, attended the court of justice, even 
presided over the first meetings of the provincial legislature, and of 
course been involved in the Masonic activity in rooms built on these 
foundations. One might still picture him climbing the hill from Navy 
Hall on the night of the full moon to attend lodge in this place. He 
undoubtedly knew or knew of Jarvis, and his friends included Butler 
and Phelps, both officers in the Provincial Grand Lodge at Niagara. 
One wonders about the influence he might have had on the lodges 
and jurisdictions founded here. 

Bro. King's paper adds another perspective to the life and times 
of Simcoe. Other papers, including the one written for the Canadian 
Masonic Research Association by M.W. Bro. Harris, are listed in the 
bibliography for our future study. 

Some years ago I had the opportunity to play the part, in full 
costume of the period, of a 'courier de bois' at an annual banquet 
held in Niagara-on-the-Lake and hosted by 'John Graves Simcoe and 
his Wife'. It was an interesting experience, and truly made our 
history come ahve for me. Simcoe, even after 200 years, continues to 
be honoured in Niagara as a meaningful contributor to what was to 
become a strong province and nation. It is appropriate that Bro. King 


remind our fraternity of Simcoe's contribution both at Niagara and 
in Upper Canada during this the celebration of Niagara No. 2's 

Stewart Greavette 

SECOND REVIEW - was prepared by W. Bro. Colin K. 
Duquemin, and presented by Bro. Collins. 

W. Bro. Nelson King's paper, "John Graves Simcoe: Statesman, 
Soldier and Freemason", is both timely and appropriate. This year, 
Niagara-on-the-Lake marks the two hundredth anniversary of the 
arrival of the first Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada to the 
locaHty which became, for a time, the capital of the Province. Too, 
the delivery of W. Bro. King's paper on the site where it is generally 
held, Simcoe convened the first Legislature of Upper Canada, is 
pertinent. W. Bro. King provides us with an interesting and informa- 
tive insight into the life of John Graves Simcoe. Bearing in mind the 
relevance of the site for the presentation of this paper, perhaps W. 
Bro. King could expand on Simcoe as a Statesman, most particularly 
his attitude towards slavery, and his vision for the place of Upper 
Canada in British North America. 

Colin Duquemin 


W. Bro. Nelson King 

Thank you Bro. Stewart Greavette for your most kind review of 
John Graves Simcoe, Statesman, Soldier and Freemason. It was my 
intent to focus on the man, not on Freemasonry, but even focusing 
on the man, time would not permit to delve deeply into his indiv- 
iduality, however the inscription on his headstone would appear to 
sum up the character, and substance of the man. Brethren, if you will 
allow, I would once again like to quote that inscription. 


"Sacred to the memory of John Graves Simcoe, Lt. 
Gen. in the Army and Col. of the 22nd Regt. of Foot, 
who died on the 26th day of October, 1806 aged 54. 

In whose life and character the virtues of the Hero, the 
Patriot and the Christian were so eminently conspicuo- 
us, that it may be justly said he served his King, and 
his Country, with zeal exceeded only by his piety 
towards his God.'' 

Bro. Greavette, I doubt that a man and a Mason of Simcoe's 
virtue would have attended a Lodge meeting in Newark or in York 
during his tenure. As the Lx)dges that WiUiam Jarvis, Substitute 
Provincial Grand Master of Upper Canada E.R. (Ancients), 
warranted were not recognized by the Grand Lodge that Lieutenant- 
Governor Simcoe was a member. But there is no doubt that he freely 
used Freemasons Hall's amenities in his governing of Upper Canada, 
and as you have said on this very spot and on the very foundation of 
this most historical Lodge in our Grand Jurisdiction. 

Brethren, if you are ever in Toronto on a Tuesday evening, and 
find yourself with nothing to do, stop at the Fort York Armoury, and 
ask for Major Stuart Bull, who is the Historian and Curator of the 
Queen's York Rangers Regimental Museum. The Queen's York 
Rangers were originally the Queens Rangers 1st American Regiment, 
who can trace their Hneage back to one of the most famous fighting 
forces that ever existed on this continent - Roger's Rangers. In that 
Regimental Museum there are a number of artifacts that have 
masonic connotations. Such as William Jarvis's original dress 
uniform, and a masonic jewel presented to Major Robert Rogers of 
the fore-mentioned Rogers Rangers. The jewel is engraved with 
many masonic symbols, and was presented to Rogers, by the 
Company of Freemason's of London. It is surprising how much of 
the history of this great country has Masonic connections. 

Once again thank you Bro. Greavette for taking time to review 
my paper and for your most kind comments. 


Thank you Bro. Colin Duquemin for your kind and considerate 
response to my paper "John Graves Simcoe, Statesman, Soldier and 
Freemason", it is not often that a paper is reviewed by the District 
Historian, I am honoured that two such knowledgable Brethren were 
chosen to review this paper. 

I unfortunately have not had the time to delve further into your 
request to expand on John Graves Simcoe toward slavery, and his 
vision for the place of Upper Canada in British North America, but 
as you suggest this would be the ideal location for such a paper to be 
researched and presented. 

However, there is one quest that the Brethren of Niagara 
Districts *A* and *B' could take up; that is the search for the "Simcoe 
Gavel". I am sure that such an artifact would be a welcome addition 
to the wonderful Masonic Museum adjacent to this lodge room and 
under the same roof. Again thank you for your most kind view. 

Nelson King 


W.Bro. Bill Severne - The 'gavel' referred to by our speaker is in 
the collection of the Niagara Historical Society Museum. It was 
presented to Janet Carnaham, who was the founder of the Museum, 
some time after 1909 by John Ross Robertson. He was very support- 
ive of the Historical Society's efforts to build a museum and to build 
a collection. There are a number of articles in our collection that 
were donated by him in the early days. This gavel is one of them, it 
is in the 1911 catalogue of the collection. I have not been able to 
find out when it actually got there, because it involves reading the 
minutes, if any of you have seen the handwriting of those days, 
reading the minutes is not an easy task. 

We would be only too happy to return the gavel to Grand Lodge, 
and as the Museum is about to commence a fund raising campaign 
to restore the building, we are confident that for a substantial 
donation, something could possibly be arranged. Thank you very 





R.W« Bro. Jack Pos, Past Master 

W. Bro. Doug Garrett, distinguished guests and my brethren, 
first I wish to thank W. Bro. CoHn Duquemin for extending to me 
the privilege of participating in this the first bicentennial of a 
masonic lodge in the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Canada in 
the Province of Ontario; and second to thank Niagara Lodge for the 
opportunity to present a brief discussion on the formation of The 
Heritage Lodge, and its contribution to Freemasonry in Ontario. 


The Heritage Lodge was Instituted September 21st, 1977, 
and Constituted September 23rd, 1978 by M.W. Bro. Robert E. 
Davies as the first Historical masonic lodge in our Jurisdiction. 
However, this was not the first time that the concept had arisen, as 
evidenced from the report of the Committee on the Condition of 
Masonry prepared by M.W. Bro. Hugh Murray to the 43rd Annual 
Communication of Grand Lodge held in Toronto in 1898 (1)** "The 
Board observe with pleasure that some eminent and busy brethren 
have found time to deliver lectures and read papers at lodge 
meetings. It has been said that too much attention is given to 
conferring of degrees, as if Masonry began and ended with the 
reception of degrees. Of course, the great object of Masonry is to 
make Masons in the true sense of the term; but unless they are 
afterwards instructed in the history, the aims, the practice of the 
craft, as well as its literature, they will not attain to the stature of 
the ideal Freemason!" 

* Paper presented to Niagara Lodge No. 2, A.F.& A.M., G.R.C., 
Bicentennial Masonic History Conference, held at Niagara- on-the- Lake, 
May 23-24, 1992. 

** Bracketed numbers refer to numbered references in the Bibliography. 


The subject came up again when the Deputy Grand Master 
R.W. Bro. W.H. Wardrope, wrote in his report on the Condition of 
Masonry for the 62nd Annual Communication held in Belleville, in 
1917 (2) - '7/ has been suggested that an organization on the lines of the 
Round Table, entirely voluntary, and composed of those who have 
similar tastes and the spirit of research and a desire to advance the real 
interest of the Craft, in its history, literature, philosophy and administrat- 
ion, might be formed in groups of active workers, who would share with 
their brethren the results of their studies and conferences together.'' 


Three years later a group of masons in Toronto enlisted the 
support of M.W. Bro. Dunlop, R.W. Bro. Redman and the Grand 
Lodge Librarian, Bro. Haydon in their proposal to form a Research 
Lodge. This proposal was turned down by Grand Lodge and the 
brethren then organized the Toronto Society for Masonic Research 
in 1921 (14), ''with the purpose of being *a forum for the presentation 
of views and the discussion of opinions on matters of Masonic 
educational interest*. The founding officers were R.W. Bro. James B. 
Nixon as President, W. Bro. A. Evans as Vice-President, and Bro. 
N.W.J. Haydon as Secretary." During the Society*s formative years, it 
met twice quarterly for presentation of papers and discussions 
thereof; but topics related to the Constitution, lodge administration, 
or mechanics of the ritual were avoided. 

The Society continues after 71 years, which ranks it among 
the oldest continuing masonic research organizations in the world. 
The oldest and most noted is Quatuor Coronati Lodge No. 2076, 
London, England, which began publishing its proceedings in 1886. 
The Toronto Society for Masonic Research produced one pubhcation 
for general distribution, a useful booklet of twenty-nine pages titled 
"Freemasonry in Canada" (1923). Its current membership is less than 
10, but the small body still meets ocassionally in private homes. 
Leadership is provided by R.W. Bro. E.V. Ralph, the Society*s 



The following information is extracted from J. Lawrence 
Runnalls* paper "A Brief History of The Canadian Masonic 
Research Association'', CMRA Paper #97 (15 pg. 1728-1731). 
The matter of a lodge of research for All-Canada was first 
raised at the second Conference of Grand Chapters of Royal 
Arch Masons of Canada, held in Toronto, September 28, 1948. 
It was thought that for a National body to be successful, it 
must have genuine backing from all Grand Masonic Bodies in 
Canada. The subject was again introduced the following year 
first at the Canadian Conference of Grand Lodges held in 
Toronto, and second at the Assembly of the Sovereign Great 
Priory, Knights Templar held in Winnipeg. A committee, 
representing all Grand Masonic Bodies, was formed, and its 
first session was held at Hart House, University of Toronto, on 
November 15, 1949. 

The committee prepared a number of recommenda- 
tions to be presented to the next Conference of Grand Lodges 
to be held in Winnipeg, February, 1951; the key request was 
that a petition be presented to the Grand Lodge of Canada, in 
the Province of Ontario, for a warrant for an All-Canada 
Lodge of Research. The reason for this selection being that 
Ontario is the central province and its Grand Lodge the 

It was proposed that amendments be made to the 
Grand Lodge Constitution to permit it to issue a warrant for 
the Lodge of Research, permitting its Grand Master and 
Grand Historian to be ex-officio active members of the Lodge 
and allowing members of other jurisdictions to become 
members by affiliation. 

In the meantime, and in order to demonstrate the 
feasibility and desirability of such a research lodge in Canada, 
the committee formed an Association called the Canadian 
Masonic Research Association to demonstrate the useful work 
which might be done in the field of Masonic historical 
research. The aims of the Association were listed as follows: 


(1) To encourage Masonic research and 

(2) To present findings at meetings. 

(3) To publish proceedings and transact- 

(4) To publish Masonic books. 

(5) To reproduce or print Masonic docu- 

(6) To re-print scarce Masonic books. 

(7) To assist in and encourage the pres- 
ervation of Masonic materials of 
historical value. 

(Any similarities between the seven aims of the Association 
and the seven objectives of The Heritage Lodge is entirely coincid- 

There was no mention of the petition in M.W. Bro. J. P. 
Maher's (Grand Master of Canada in the Province of Ontario) report 
on the program of the Canadian Conference of Grand Lodges held 
in Winnipeg; nor in the proceedings of succeeding years. However, 
informal discussions with leaders of the Craft in Ontario there 
appeared to be misgivings as to the workabihty of a Research Lodge 
centered in Ontario to which any Canadian Master Mason might be 
accepted. It was finally deemed wise to have the Canadian Masonic 
Research Association continue under the format as set up to avoid 
later complication. 

In all planning and negotiations, M.W. Bro. Reginald V. 
Harris was in the forefront. He had served as Secretary for the 
Research Lodge of Nova Scotia and was considered Canada's leading 
Masonic scholar. Leadership in the Association had always been 
provided by Past Grand Master's, until its final decade when J. 
Lawrence Runnalls struggled to keep it ahve. Papers were still being 
written and presented up to 1976. All papers were presented by 
invitation from the host lodge at their Regular Meeting. By the mid 
1970's most of the approximately 250 members resided in Ontario. 
Durmg its 28 year history, no less than 116 research papers were 
published; these were professionally hand bound in their original 
format by one of its members R.W. Bro. Lawrence Runnalls. The 
complete set, comprising eight volumes, is now housed in the special 
masonic section of the Brock University Library. 

The Association, under the authority of the Canadian 
Conference of Grand Lodges, was still meeting about 6 times 


each year, but by 1976 the membership had been reduced 
drastically. With the passing of many of the older members, 
they found it difficult to attract younger members for continui- 
ty, and the Association ceased to function after 1977. 

The following is an extract of a letter received from 
Lawrence Runnalls dated January 24, 1979: 

"/ note the plans for the forthcoming meetings of The 
Heritage Lodge. Such planning will make for the 
success of the Lodge. That was the weakness of the 
C.M.R.A. It became a one-man show. And Canada 
was a big territory to cover. We just ran out of writers 
and subjects. When Reg. Harris died, the heart was 
destroyed and the organization was prone to die. 
Besides those at the helm were getting too old "to cut 
the mustard' any longer.'' 

In the meantime other forces were at work; as secretary of 
Guelph Lodge No. 258, I received a phone call from one of our 
widows asking for assistance to help move some of her furniture, 
which she was passing on to several of her children and nieces. A 
plight which was befalling many women in similar circumstances on 
a fixed income and who were no longer able to maintain the family 
residence; and as a consequence were forced to move into smaller 
faciUties that could not accommodate all the family furniture. Several 
lodge brothers had volunteered one Saturday to carry out the 
widow's request, and at the end of the day the remaining refuse was 
to be put out as trash. However, the widow informed us that one of 
the larger boxes contained her husband's "masonic stuff' for which 
she had no use, but suggested that the brethren might wish to 
examine its contents. You can't imagine our shock and surprise to 
discover, among a number of papers and artifacts that had accumu- 
lated over a lifetime, an old lodge minute book. This Past Master 
had often borrowed research material to prepare short talks for 
lodge instruction, and had died before he could return the latest 
material to the lodge. Masonry in the first half of this century was 
apparently still clothed in secrecy when husbands did not discuss 
masonic matters with their wives. This is one simple but all too 
frequent circumstance which illustrates how important masonic 
history can be lost. 

On the other hand, how many times may this have happened ^ 
unbeknown to anyone? Just imagine the constant erosion of masonic 


memorabilia through Hke circumstances; during the past 20 years the 
Grand Lodge A.F.& A.M., of Canada in the Province of Ontario, has 
lost by death 52,289 masons or an average of 2,614 every single year 
since 1970 and that does not include losses from resignations and 
suspensions (3). Remember, a little bit of history is lost with each 
parting brother, and if nothing is done to recover and preserve 
masonic artifacts and memorabilia it will be lost forever. 

Except for a few of the older lodges, such as Niagara No. 2, 
Sussex No. 5 and Norfolk No. 10, that have carefully restored and 
put on display some of their masonic artifacts, no significant action 
has been, or is being, taken to preserve our masonic heritage, not 
even our own Grand Lodge except for three corn, wine and oil 
vessels used for Institutional Ceremonies and framed pictures of Past 
Grand Masters surrounding the Boardroom in the Grand Lodge 
Memorial Building in Hamilton. Even the Grand Lodge Library has 
been relegated to a small basement room where some of our rare 
books are vulnerable to the potential hazard of bursting steam pipes 

As more and more masonic brethren travel outside the 
Province and the Country, and take the time to visit other Grand 
Lodges and their constituent lodges as well as their historical sites, 
libraries and museums, they become increasingly aware of the 
absence of similar research and archival activities in our own 
Province. Ontario masons can only look with envy at the world-class 
masonic museums in: the Freemasons Hall, London, England; 
Rosslyn Chapel in the Village of Roslin near Edinburgh, Scotland; 
the Grand Lodge Building in the Hague, Netherlands; the Masonic 
Temple, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; the George Washington Masonic 
National Memorial, Alexandria, Virginia; the Scottish Rite Masonic 
Temple, Los Angeles, California; the Grand Lodge Building (4), 
Waco, Texas; the Iowa Masonic Library, Museum, and Administra- 
tion Building, Cedar Rapids, Iowa; the Gloucester Street - Masonic 
Hall, Christchurch, New Zealand; the Pioneer Lodge Building, 
Sherbrooke, Nova Scotia; and the Pioneer Lodge Room, Heritage 
Park, Calgary, Alberta. There are of course many others, but these 
are ones the author has visited over the years, and with each new 
discovery the conscience cried out in agony at the absence of similar 
efforts to preserve our own heritage. 

These concerns were brought to the attention of many 
prominent masons in the late 60's, including pre-arranged meetings 
with officers of Grand Lodge; and while a few sympathized with the 
pernicious erosion of our historical artifacts, many responded with 
such comments as: "this is not the time to introduce such major 


changes"; "you will need a great deal more support"; "wait until the 'old 
guard' has retired from active service"; "we cannot afford the operating 
cost of the marble halls of a museum let alone the initial capital cost"; 
and these were only the kind rebuttals, each of you no doubt has 
heard more critical and discouraging comments when you proposed 
new ideas for the good of Freemasonry. 


Not to be dismayed, a small hard core of dedicated masons 
(5), including WilHam S. McVittie, Jack Pos, Randall D. Langs, Clare 
A. Parsons, Edwin C. Wilson and C.E. Balfour Le Gresley, were 
eventually marshalled to enlist the aid of others in seeking support 
for the formation of a historical or research lodge. An important 
element in gaining support for the project was the establishment of 
the Regional Workshops in 1973, encompassing the districts of Brant, 
Bruce, Grey, North Huron, South Huron, Waterloo, Wellington and 
Wilson), these were held every three years up to and including 1987. 
Prominent topics in the earlier workshops included: "Let Your Light 
So Shine" (6), "Our Masonic Heritage - The Need for a Historical 
Lodge" (7), and "The Need for a Masonic Museum" (8). 

The first organizational meeting for the Proposed Formation 
of a Historical Lodge was held in the University Centre of the 
University of Guelph on October 27th, 1976. The three prominent 
speakers on this occasion were: Wallace E. McLeod, Jack Pos, and 
Howard O. Polk. Task Force Groups were organized and chairmen 
appointed as follows: Purpose and Objectives (Wallace McLeod), 
Structure and Organization (Allan Broadley), Membership And 
Jurisdiction (Randall Langs), Planning and Procedure (Jack Pos), 
Accounting and Finance (Ed Wilson), Information Retrieval and 
Dissemination (Balfour Le Gresley), and CompHance With The 
Constitution and Regulations of the Grand Lodge (Keith Flynn and 
Jim Dezeeuw) (5). 

The Tounder's Meeting' (9) of the proposed Heritage Lodge 
was held in the Preston-Hespeler Masonic Temple, May 18, 1977. 
R.W. Bro. Roy S. Sparrow chaired a unique program with an 
opening welcome from R.W. Bro. Terry R. Williams, D.D.G.M. of 
Waterloo District and W. Bro. Ozzie Whitfield, W.M. Concord 
Lodge No. 722, the Sponsoring Lodge. 

The following is an extract from the Prologue given by V.W. 
Bro. Jack Pos, 


"Unlike any other founder's meeting for the 
formation of a new lodge, this meeting has been 
preceded by many organizational meetings over the 
past two years and even long before that in the hearts 
and minds of many masons. It must be gratifying to 
many here tonight that all the thought and planning 
will culminate into positive action as we take that 
important step to Petition the Grand Lodge for a 
Dispensation to meet as a Lodge and subsequently for 
a Warrant of Constitution. 

This is not the time to remind ourselves that 
this is only the beginning. As we accept the challenge 
of the major objectives we have engaged ourselves to 
perform, we shall quickly appreciate the extent of the 
work; and when that time comes, I sincerely hope we 
shall not be lacking for volunteers.'' 

The hand-crafted petition in beautiful Old English scroll was 
subsequently signed by 104 Charter Members, but not before Randall 
Langs and Claire Parsons had carried the petition in person to 
members in Brant and Wilson Districts; Balfour LeGresley and Allan 
Hogg had flown by private airplane to obtain signatures in the 
Kingston area and return the petition to the Guelph Air Park; and 
Jack Pos with loyal support from his wife Daisy travelled the rest of 
the Province to obtain the other signatures from members who 
could not attend the Founder*s Meeting. Even in one instance having 
to track down M.W. Bro. James N. Allan, who had attended a long 
time friend's funeral in Port Dover; Bro. Allan affixed his signature 
to the petition on the trunk hd of the car. Other Charter Members 
from different masonic districts, who knew they would be unable to 
attend the meeting, drove to Guelph to sign the petition. 

Also on this occasion, R.W. Bro. Charles Fotheringham 
(noted for his poetry and musical talents) recited the following poem 
for the occasion: 


Parent of light! accept our praise, 
who shed'st on us thy brightest rays; 
the light that fills the mind! 
By choice selected, la! we stand 
by friendship joined, a mystic bandy 
that love, that aid mankind! 


In choral numbers Masons join 

to bless and praise this Light Divine. 

After the closing hymn "O God Our Help In Ages Pasf\ the 
Chaplain concluded the petition signing ceremony with the benedict- 

The Lodge was saddened to report just one year later on 
June 24th, 1978, R.W. Bro. Charles Fotheringham passed to the 
Grand Lodge above (10). R.W. Bro. Fotheringham had been 
appointed as the first Organist of the Lodge. 


A most impressive and dignified Ceremony of Institution 
under the leadership of R.W. Bro. Charles F. Grimwood, D.D.G.M. 
of Waterloo District was held in the Preston-Hespeler Masonic 
Temple, Cambridge on Wednesday, September 21st, 1977, under the 
sponsorship of Concord Lodge No. 722. During the Ceremony, the 
Dispensation from Grand Lodge was presented to the Lodge with 
the proclamation that the lodge had been solemnly instituted for the 
purposes of Masonry, according to ancient usage. The Officers were 
as follows (10): 

W.M. V.W. Bro. Jacob Pos 

I.P.M. R.W. Bro. N. R. Richards 

S.W. R.W. Bro. K.R.A. Flynn 

J.W. R.W. Bro. Donald G.S. Grinton 
S.D. W. Bro. James DeZeeuw 

J.D. Bro. George E. Zwicker 

I.G. W. Bro. Ernest J. Brown 

Chaplain Bro. Rev. W. Gray Rivers 

S.S. W. Bro. Robert J. Welt 

J.S. R.W. Bro. Ronald E. Groshaw 

Tyler R.W. Bro. Wm. S. McVittie 
Sec'y W. Bro. James A. Faulkner 

Asst.Sec*y W. Bro. Joseph J. VHehs 

Treas. R.W. Bro. W. Ed. Wilson 

D. of C. R.W. Bro. Roy S. Sparrow 

Organist R.W. Bro. Charles Fotheringham 

Upon taking office, the Worshipful Master remarked (10): 


"Brethren I cannot conceal the satisfaction this 
moment affords, and I am sure our guests will forgive us a few 
moments as we savour the fruits of our labours. 

Many of you have devoted long hours and travelled 
many miles during the past two years for the cause at hand. 
You have experienced obstacles and disappointments but your 
total efforts have been unfailing and the Lodge is indeed 
grateful for your unselfish service and dedication. 

We are now at the threshold of even greater challenges 
and a more extensive service to Freemasonry as we strive to 
accomplish those important objectives we have set for ourselves. 
Some of you have not only declined the honour, which you so 
richly deserve, of being designated one of the first officers of the 
lodge, but in true masonic tradition have offered your services 
in perhaps less prominent positions to carry out those essential 
tasks behind the scenes to insure the continuing success of this 
unique lodge which has no precedence in our Jurisdiction." 


The First Regular meeting of the Lodge U.D., was held in 
the Preston-Hespeler Masonic Temple, Cambridge, Nov. 16, 1977. 
Following the regular business meeting, R.W. Bro. N.R. Richards 
introduced R.W. Bro. Wallace E. McLeod, P.G.S.W., Chairman of 
the Grand Lodge Committee on Masonic Education, who presented 
the 'First Masonic Paper' titled THE OLD CHARGES. The paper 
was followed by formal reviews prepared by V.W. Bro. J. Lawrence 
Runnalls, W. Bro. Allan J. Cohoe, and Bro. John E. Taylor. A 
formal rebuttal to the three reviews was presented by the speaker. 
M.W. Bro. WilUam K. Bailey, in thanking the speaker pointed out to 
the Brethren that (10): 

"... we have indeed been privileged in this inaugural 
paper presentation to have such a firm foundation established 
for future presentations. . . . ". 

He reminded the Brethren that to know where we are going 
it is a good idea to know where we have been. There are many 
wonderful traditions in Masonry and he was pleased and grateful that 
the Lodge was off to an excellent start with such a fine presentation. 
These comments were supported by the applause of all the Brethren. 


At the next Regular Meeting, the Worshipful Master 
presented an interesting Illustrated Lecture Tour of the George 
Washington Masonic National Memorial located in Arlington, 
Virginia. This was followed by an informal 'Question & Answer' 
period under the direction of W. Bro. Gary J. Powell. 

The highlight of the first year of operation was the Premier 
presentation of an 18th Century Lodge Meeting and Initiation 
Ceremony as dramatized by the Brethren of Wellington District. The 
fourteen member cast, in full costume of the period, presented a 
portrayal of an actual lodge meeting of the Lodge of Charity, held 
in the Devil's Tavern on Bartholomew Lane at eight of the clock on 
the ninth day of May, 1774. 

A special guest of The Heritage Lodge on the above 
occasion was V.W. Bro. Harry Carr of the United Grand Lodge of 
England and former Secretary of Quatuor Coronati Lodge No. 2076, 
London, England. Bro. Carr complimented the Cast on a beautiful 
performance and made one correction and offered a suggestion. The 
correction related to the historical introduction by Jack Pos who had 
stated"... On October 20th, 1730, one Bro. Samuel Prichard, published 
his *Masonry Dissected', the first exposure ..."; Bro. Carr commented 
that there had been previous exposures, but 'Masonry Dissected' was 
the first exposure that contained all three degrees. The suggestion, 
offered by Bro. Carr, related to the various fines imposed by the 
Worshipful Master; Bro. Carr suggested that the amount of the fines, 
levied by the Worshipful Master, be reduced somewhat in keeping 
with the period. 


Saturday, September 23rd, 1978, marked a most significant 
and historic date in the annals of Freemasonry in the Province of 
Ontario, as on this date two lodges would join in the banquet 
festivities and each would be Constituted on the same day and in the 
same Lodge Room. The Otto Klotz Lodge No. 731 in the afternoon, 
and The Heritage Lodge No. 730 in the evening. 

The Joint Constitutional Dinner was held at the Matador 
Tavern, 250 Hespeler Road, Cambridge-Gait. The total attendance 
was 142, with 51 distinguished guests at the head tables. In respond- 
ing to the Toast to Grand Lodge, the Grand Master, M.W. Bro. 
Robert E. Davies, expressed his delight in being present to share in 
the joys of this important event. Following an inspiring address, the 
Grand Master concluded with another historic announcement 




concerning the preparations for the 125th Anniversary of the Grand 
Lodge of Canada in the Province of Ontario. 

M.W. Bro. Eric W. Nancekivell, in proposing the toast to the 
Officers and Members of The Heritage Lodge, paid tribute to those 
who conceived the concept for this unique Lodge and expressed his 
confidence that its impact would have far reaching effects, not only 
for its growing membership, but for the good of Freemasonry in 

In responding to the toast, R.W. Bro. N.R. Richards thanked 
M.W. Bro. Nancekivell on behalf of The Heritage Lodge, and 
reminded the members of the Lodge that our work had only just 
begun and we must now demonstrate to the Craft in general that we 
have the capabihty to live up to our expectations. 

The evening ceremonies commenced with The Heritage 
Lodge U.D. opening in the 1st Degree at 8:45 p.m. V.W. Bro. Pos 
expressed his pleasure at such a large attendance, and hoped that all 
would find the evening one of profit and pleasure. He then called on 
R.W. Bro. Frank Bruce and V.W. Bro. Randall Langs as the 
Deputation to announce to the Most Worshipful the Grand Master 
that the Officers and Members of The Heritage Lodge U.D., were 
assembled and desirous of being Constituted and Consecrated. On 
the return of the Deputation from Grand Lodge, the lodge was 
opened in the 2nd Degree at 8:55 p.m. 

The Grand Master, M.W. Bro. Robert E. Davies entered the 
Lodge leading a most distinguished procession of the Grand Lodge. 
The Lodge was subsequently Constituted in accordance with ancient 
usage, to act as a Regular Lodge within the Jurisdiction of the Grand 
Lodge of Canada in the Province of Ontario. 

The Grand Master, with the assistance of the Grand 
Chaplain and the Grand Lodge, then proceeded to Consecrate the 
lodge in conformity with the usages and customs of the Craft. The 
proclamations having been completed, the M.W. the Grand Master 
and Members of the Grand Lodge retired from the lodge at 10:07 

At this time V.W. Bro. Pos called on M.W. Bro. William K. 
Bailey, the Installing Master, to assume the gavel and proceed with 
the Installation and Investiture of the first officers of the newly 
Constituted Lodge, who proceeded with an impressive and dignified 
ceremony which was conducted with great efficiency and dispatch; 
and with the exception of W. Bro. Ernest J. Brown, who had 


submitted a resignation because of conflicting dates with his 
Canadian Mother Lodge, the Lodge was Instituted and the Officers 
Installed in their respective offices. W. Bro. Balfour Le Gresley being 
Invested as the Inner Guard, and R.W. Bro. N.R. Richards, the 
Deputy Grand Master, was invested as the Immediate Past Master. 


The major activities of The Heritage Lodge are summarized 
under the following headings: 1) Research Papers; 2) Grand Lodge 
125 th Anniversary; 3) Lodge Historian Publication; 4) Lodge Room 
Restoration Project; 5) The Liaskis Painting; 6) Annual Heritage 
Banquet; 7) CMRA Papers; 8) Special Lectures; 9) The Wilham 
James Dunlop Award; and 10) Masonic Artifacts. 


For the past fifteen years, more than 67 research papers (See 
Appendix 'A*) have been prepared by members of The Heritage 
Lodge and invited guests. Approximately half of these have been 
presented in the 'Home' location of The Heritage Lodge in Camb- 
ridge, Ontario. The Heritage Lodge was invited to present more than 
30 papers at such other locations throughout the Province as Niagara 
Falls, Hamilton, Toronto, Windsor, London, Chatham, Brantford, 
Hanover, Barrie, Huntsville, Oshawa, Lindsay, Peterborough, 
Belleville, Kingston, Brockville, Richmond, Sault Ste Marie, and 

Most of the papers have been formally reviewed by more 
than one reviewer and responded to by the author. In many cases, 
where time permits, the listening audience is given an opportunity to 
participate in the informal discussions. When the Lodge was first 
formed, research papers were published with the quarterly publica- 
tion of the Lodge which included the minutes of previous lodge and 
General Purpose Committee meetings, and the lodge summons for 
the next Regular Meeting. However, as these became too bulky for 
simple wire stitch binding, the research papers were bound separately 
(in recent years, perfect glue binding), and published yearly. 

From the very beginning, 50 additional copies of summonses, 
minutes of meetings and lodge proceedings were accumulated for 
hard cover binding in a single volume every five years. This year will 
mark the third production and 60 copies will be produced. About five 


copies are set aside for special presentations such as the Grand 
Lodge Library, one or two Craft Lodge Hbraries and The Heritage 
Lodge Archives. The others are available, after prior reservation, on 
a first come basis. Each of the books of the set of three volumes 
(which will include the 15 year history of The Heritage Lodge) is 
hand bound by a professional book binder (David Turner of 
Hamilton) and beautifully embossed with gold leaf lettering. 


As part of the 125th Anniversary Celebrations of the Grand 
Lodge of Ancient Free and Accepted Masons of Canada in the 
Province of Ontario, and at the request of the Grand Master, M.W. 
Bro. N.R. Richards, The Heritage Lodge participated in two 
important events. First - the preparation of a manuscript 'The Birth 
of Our Grand Lodge' to dramatize the formation of the Grand Lodge 
for presentation, in full costume of the period, at the 125th Annual 
Communication of the Grand Lodge, July 15, 1980; and second - the 
'Heritage of Masonry Display' at the same Annual Communication. 


The basic concepts for a re-enactment of this historic event 
having previously been discussed in private by M.W. Bro. N.R. 
Richards and V.W. Bro. J. Pos and subsequently communicated to 
other distinguished leaders of the Craft, it was not long before plans 
were implemented to proceed with the work. The following is a 
chronological summary of the important activities that brought about 
the final dramatization of those historic events that led to the 
formation of the Grand Lodge of Canada in the Province of Ontario. 

1. Shortly after the 124th Annual Communication of Grand 
Lodge, R.W. Bro. Charles Emmett, Chairman of the 125th 
Anniversary Committee, was granted approval by the Grand 
Master, M.W. Bro. N.R. Richards to include the "Play" as 
one of the activities of the Anniversary Celebrations. 

2. A Coordinator was selected in the person of R.W. Bro. C. 
John Woodburn. A general outline, including the necessary 
resource personnel, was prepared, and the operating budget 

3. Resource material from many sources was researched and 
edited by V.W. Bro. J. Pos. Requests for relevant material 
from the Grand Lodges of Quebec, England, Ireland, 


Scotland, New York, and Michigan were made through the 
office of the Grand Secretary, on October 14, 1979. On 
November 2, 1979, additional information was solicited from 
the 28 Senior Lodges in Ontario and Quebec that were 
active before 1855. Much of this material was received and 
edited by November 20, 1979. 

4. The first general meeting was called by the Coordinator on 
November 30, 1979. Those in attendance included the 
selected Script Writers: R.W. Bros. Reg Hoddy, Joel Piper, 
W. Bros. Greg Robinson, Stewart Greavette and William 
Tindale; Director: W. Bro. Frank Holland; and Research 
Editor: V.W. Bro. J. Pos. 

5. From December 1, 1979, to January 26, 1980, the Research 
Editor and Script Writers, developed, revised, modified and 
finally completed the semi-final draft for the complete 

6. The Wardrobe SuppHer was selected by the Coordinator in 
November, 1979. 

7. The Producer, R.W. Bro. David Bruce was selected in 
December, 1979. 

8. Since the events leading up to the formation of the Grand 
Lodge took place in four prominent regions of the Province, 
it was decided to cast the various scenes dramatized in the 
play from their respective areas and place the organization 
and rehearsals under the supervision of local directors. In 
January, 1980, the following were appointed: 

Niagara Falls R.W. Bro. Wallace Secord 

Kingston R.W. Bro. Reg. Hoddy 

Toronto V.W. Bro. Albert Lee 
Hamilton W. Bro. Frank Holland 

Including 28 Actors with 6 back-up participants as well as 
the Narrator, R.W. Bro. William McNeil. 

9. By the first week in February, the final draft copy of the 
complete manuscript had been reviewed by M.W. Bro. 
Wm.K. Bailey and R.W. Bro. Wallace E. McLeod, and the 
suggestions and recommendations included in the final copy 
by the Editor. 


10. By early March, the Coordinator had reproduced the final 
manuscript and distributed copies to the Regional Directors 
and Producer. Regional Meetings were held with the 
Director, Producer, Regional Directors and Actors in 
Kingston, Toronto and Hamilton. 

11. From April to May, 1980, rehearsals were under-way in the 
Regions, and the Producer was busy organizing his support 
crews for stage preparation, make-up, wardrobe, audio-visual 
equipment, lighting and ushers, with untiring assistance from 
the Coordinator. 

12. On May 31, 1980, the first general rehearsal, combining all 
the regions, was held in Malton. (Courtesy of some Com- 
pany that donated the use of its premises) 

13. Regional rehearsals continued through June and early July. 

14. The first dress rehearsal was filmed (by a voluntary crew 
from the Drama Department of the University of Toronto) 
on July 12, 1980, in the Auditorium of the Masonic Temple 
at 888 Yonge Street, Toronto. The rehearsal was gratifying 
to all who had worked so hard to bring the project to 
fruition, but the filming was a disaster. 

15. The Tlay' was dramatized for 1100 Brethren in the Cana- 
dian Room of the Royal York Hotel, on Tuesday afternoon, 
July 15, 1980. At the conclusion of the play, R.W. Bro. 
Woodburn called on the Grand Master, M.W. Bro. N.R. 
Richards, to present a beautifully engraved plague to each 
of the following: 

Director W. Bro. Frank Holland 

Producer R.W. Bro. David Bruce 

Research Editor V.W. Bro. Jacob Pos 

Celebrations were held for the entire cast and production 
crew immediately following the presentation. 

16. Publicity for this particular event commenced in October, 
1979. &rtensive use was made of the monthly Anniversary 
Bulletin to publicize the play, and to send out ticket order 
forms. Regional Chairmen of the 125th Anniversary Com- 
mittee were kept informed of the progress and the informa- 
tion was passed on to the Lodges and Masons through 
District News-Letters and Lodge Summonses. An eight-page 


brochure was especially designed to outline the play and to 
identify the cast and organizers; it also served as a historic 
souvenir for those who attended the performance. In all, 
more than 85 dedicated Masons actively participated and 
derived much pleasure from their involvement in the overall 


During the Anniversary Year, the Pubhc Relations Commit- 
tee had encouraged many lodges and brethren to re-examine their 
masonic mementos including: furniture, jewels, regaha, hand crafted 
tools, coins, letters, charts, certificates, cards, wood and marble 
engravings, and other memorabiha. Artifacts that had long since been 
forgotten were restored, identified with brass plates or displayed in 
glass cases, all with a sense of renewed pride in their Masonic 

Many were invited to share their lodge or personal historical 
artifacts with their Brethren at the Annual Communication of Grand 
Lodge in the Ballroom of the Royal York Hotel in Toronto on July 
16, 1980, from 12:00 noon to 7:00 p.m. The entire display, which was 
viewed by more than 2,000 Masons, was under the very capable 
direction of R.W. Bro. Edmund V. Ralph. Historical items were on 
display from many districts throughout the Province with notable 
contributions from the Hamilton and Niagara Districts. Wellington 
District presented an interesting display and historical record of 
Masonic carpets. There were several displays of individual craftsmen 
still in the business of hand crafting and carving beautiful and 
functional working tools in the various degrees, as well as masonic 
stained glass windows. 

A survey was made of all the artifacts on display, and 100 of 
the more interesting items were selected to be professionally 
photographed. The pictures are being classified and cataloged, and 
will be available as resource material for future masonic scholars. 

This vast display of masonic history in one large room 
demonstrated the need for a more serious investigation of ways and 
means to preserve our Masonic heritage, if not in a Provincial 
Museum then certainly by individual lodges throughout the Province. 
Every mason in the individual lodge should assume some responsib- 
ility; the more vocal and active should provide leadership, don't wait 
unsohcited guidance, put yourself in harness and lead the way. The 
Craft in general will profit from individual efforts in particular. 


However, a lesson of caution may be learned from the following 

An interesting item displayed by one of the Lodges was that 
of a very historic World War I masonic gavel. The lodge members 
were delighted to have re-discovered a previously forgotten treasure. 
After the show, a more zealous member of the lodge undertook the 
task to display the gavel in their lodge building; but in the process of 
reducing the length of the handle to fit a convenient picture frame, 
he cut through roUed-up parchment hidden in the hollow of the 
handle, thereby destroying the historic value of the gavel. Furtherm- 
ore, he had fashioned a sharp hook from which to hang the gavel 
and from frequent handling and replacement the wood surface 
became badly scarred. Therefore, before such restorations are 
attempted, it is wise to fitst seek expert advice. 


At the time of the formation of The Heritage Lodge, the 
Lodge Historian was not a recognized Officer of the Lodge according 
to the Constitution of Grand Lodge. Not until the revised Constitut- 
ion, adopted at the Annual Communication of Grand Lodge on July 
19, 1979, and effective January 1st, 1980, was the Lodge Historian 
recognized as an Officer of the Lodge. Of course many lodges had 
appointed their respective historians, but their terms of reference 
were usually self-acclaimed, or handed down by tradition. There was 
no printed material, and since they could not be invested there was 
no instruction from that source. 

In recognition of this lack of instruction, and in anticipation 
of the changes in the Constitution, The Heritage Lodge undertook 
the responsibility of preparing printed instructions for the assistance 
of Lodge Historians. 

R.W. Bro. Charles F. Grimwood, Past District Deputy Grand 
Master of Waterloo District, volunteered his services. He addressed 
three possible situations, 1) The Historian in a well established 
Lodge with no historical record, 2) The Historian in a well estab- 
hshed Lodge with a recorded history, 3) The Historian in a new 
Lodge with no history. 

The booklet titled THE LODGE HISTORIAN' was 
dedicated to the memory of William S. McVittie, Cambridge, 
P.D.D.G.M., 1906 - 1980. There are still a few copies available from 
the Lodge Secretary at the original cost of 75 cents. 



It has been said that the future is but a projected reflection 
of the past. If Freemasonry is to benefit from this axiom, then each 
of us has a responsibility to preserve the past. This basic principle 
was very much in the minds of those who founded The Heritage 
Lodge, because the first of the seven objectives, as recorded in the 
Lodge By-Laws, reads as follows: 

'7. To preserve, maintain and uphold 
those historical events that formed 
the foundation of Ancient, Free and 
Accepted Masonry." 

This no doubt provided the inspiration for the work of the 
special task force charged with the responsibility to organize a central 
inventory of items of masonic historical interest, and which will be 
addressed later in this paper. The sixth objective is reproduced as 

"6. To endeavour to establish a Masonic 

The first opportunity to act on the 6th objective came 
quickly and unexpectedly in the fall of 1977, when a two-storey 
structure in the town of Simcoe was placed on the Real Estate 

The well preserved, red brick building, located near the 
centre of town on Norfolk Street South, was built as the residence 
for William Mercer Wilson, our first Grand Master. The asking price 
was $125,000.00, a princely sum for a young lodge still under 
Dispensation and having a cash flow of less than $2,000.00 per year. 

Nevertheless, the possibihties were investigated with all the 
excitement that comes with wishful anticipation. A Real Estate Agent 
was engaged to appraise the real value. The old home had been 
commercialized into four separate dwelUng units, and a private off- 
street parking facility provided. The property was accessible from two 
streets, but the main entrance was approached from Norfolk St., and 
directly opposite the Norfolk County *Eva Brook Donly Museum*. 

The possibilities were numerous. The large single storey wing 
could provide space for a museum. One of the dwellings at the rear 
could provide living space for a curator or custodian. The main 


structure could be modified, at a later time when resources became 
available, to accommodate a restored, lodge room designed, not only 
to display characteristic furniture and masonic artifacts, but also to 
serve as a constituted meeting place for masonic lodges desirous of 
meeting occasionally in ancient surroundings. It could also support 
Norfolk Lodge No. 10, located just around the corner, in providing 
facilities for those masons making the Annual Pilgrimage to the 
grave site of the first Grand Master approximately 3 km south on the 
same road. The project was ultimately shelved as being too ambitious 
an undertaking for the fledgling new lodge at that time. 

The following year M.W. Bro. Robert E. Davies, having 
visited The Heritage Park Lodge in Calgary, Alberta, presented a 
series of coloured slides showing the interior of the restored lodge 
room as a suggestion for a similar undertaking in Ontario. This 
unique reconstruction project involved the restoration of an old bank 
building in the historic 'Heritage Park' located on the outskirts of the 
City. The second storey of the bank building was restored as a pre- 
confederation lodge room. Lodge furniture, characteristic of the 
period, was refinished and provided an authentic background for 
display of masonic regalia, furnishings and artifacts. 

In the fall of 1978, V.W. Bro. J. Pos met separately with the 
Executive Officers of both the Doon Pioneer Village, Kitchener, and 
the Black Creek Pioneer Village, Toronto. The purpose of the 
meeting was to discuss the possibihty of restoring a historical masonic 
lodge room in a living pioneer village. Each authority expressed a 
strong desire for the project, but neither was in a position to offer 
financial assistance. 

Bro. Pos also met with the historical and public relations 
departments of the Bank of Montreal and the Toronto Dominion 
Bank; but neither was interested in sharing the cost of locating and 
restoring a suitable structure for our mutual benefits. 

A new ray of hope appeared when Bro. Stephen Maizels 
brought to the attention of R.W. Bro. Ronald Groshaw, that the 
Development Company, of which he was Vice President, was about 
to demohsh a small two-storey, wood structure that had been moved 
to the back of a lot that fronted on Woodbridge Avenue, in the town 
of Woodbridge. The building had served as the Villagers Tinsmith 
Shop prior to Canadian Confederation and during the years 1874 to 
1899 had also been the home of Blackwood Masonic Lodge which 
met in a Lodge Room on the Upper Floor. The building was 
eventually donated to the Restoration Committee. 


Discussions were renewed in earnest with the Officers of The 
MetropoHtan Toronto Regional Conservation Authority (M.T.R.C.- 
A.), who expressed great interest in the restoration project. They 
were particularly interested in the ground floor for possible use as a 
tinsmith shop, while the members of the Lodge Museum Committee 
were interested in using the second floor as a typical lodge room of 
the pre-confederation period. These meetings resulted in a proposal 
that was acceptable to both parties. In the meantime, experts of the 
M.T.R.C.A. had inspected the old building and determined that it 
would cost $65,000.00 to disassemble the structure and re-assemble 
it on a site in the Black Creek Pioneer Village. The construction of 
a special basement type foundation that would be suitable (Tempera- 
ture and humidity controlled, and proper Ughting) for archival 
research and storage, would cost an additional $10,000.00. 

The next major concern was obtaining approval and support 
from Grand Lodge, and permission to develop a program to raise the 
necessary funds. Accordingly, a PROGRESS REPORT prepared by 
V.W. Bro. Jacob Pos, was presented, under a general heading titled 
"Future Plans", to the Board of General Purposes at the 126th 
Annual Communication of The Grand Lodge in Toronto on July 14, 
1981. However, since the proposal for the 'Lodge Room Restoration 
Project' came at the end of a busy meeting, no time was allowed for 
discussion and no action was taken. However, many favourable 
comments were expressed after the meeting. 

The subject was re-introduced at the Fall Meeting of the 
Board of General Purposes held in Toronto on November 14, 1981, 
under the agenda item of "Masonic Visibility in the Community". The 
minutes of that meeting, as recorded by the Grand Secretary, states 
"Thereafter an unanimous consensus was received in support of not only 
the project but also in support of a campaign to fund this project." 

A letter from the Office of the Grand Secretary, dated 
December 2, 1981, and addressed to R.W. Bro. Ronald E. Groshaw, 
Worshipful Master of The Heritage Lodge stated that: "M W. Bro. 
Howard O. Polk, Grand Master, after much deliberation and being in 
receipt of legal advice, has directed that the following guidelines be 
established in pursuit of the goal of The Heritage Lodge in the establish- 
ment of a reconstructed Masonic Lodge Room in Black Creek Pioneer 
Village". Thereafter followed some seven detailed objectives which, 
in effect, granted permission to proceed with the intended project; 
such as: the suggestion that a non-profit holding corporation be 
formed as a vehicle to conduct such business as authorizing the lease, 
collecting and administering funds, and any other contractual 
deaUngs; permission to approach all lodges in the Jurisdiction, that 


they might be given an opportunity to participate in the project; and 
that the project should be deemed to be that of The Heritage Lodge 
No. 730, and as such would receive no financial assistance from The 
Grand Lodge. 

At the request of Blackwood Lodge No. 311, V.W. Bro. Pos 
attended a Regular Meeting of the Lodge on March 2, 1982, to 
explain, with the use of coloured slides, the Lodge Room Restoration 

At the next Regular Meeting of The Heritage Lodge, held 
in Cambridge, March 17, 1982, a number of motions were passed; 
the following four were of significant importance to the restoration 

1. That The Heritage Lodge proceed with the project 
of providing a century-old masonic building present- 
ly located in Woodbridge to Black Creek Pioneer 
Village for restoration. 

2. That The Heritage Lodge proceed to seek a *Char- 
ter' under an appropriate name such as *The Heri- 
tage Masonic Holding Corporation*, to provide a 
vehicle for the business arrangements.. .etc. 

5. That a Task Force be appointed to raise the necess- 
ary funds for the Lodge Room Restoration Project. 
R.W. Bro. Ed Drew was appointed Chairman. 

6. That a Second Task Force be appointed to expedite 
the Lodge Room Restoration Project. W. Bro. Alan 
Hogg was appointed Chairman. 

The Masonic Heritage Corporation came into being June 28, 
1982, under Letters Patent authorized by Robert G. Elgie, Minister 
of Consumer and Commercial Relations. The first Directors listed 
were: Ronald Gould Cooper, Q.C.; Charles Edwin Drew; Jacob Pos; 
and Edmund Vernard Ralph. A 'corporate seal* was designed and 
presented for acceptance to a Regular Meeting of The Heritage 
Lodge on September 15, 1982; following its adoption, the Secretary 
was instructed to proceed with the purchase. 

The 'Project* was officially under-way with the signing of the 
'Agreement' between the M.T.R.C.A. and The Masonic Heritage 
Corporation, on the 11th day of February 1983. 


The 'Fund Raising Task Force', under the leadership of 
R.W. Bro. Ed Drew, took up the challenge to raise $100,000.00 from 
the Masons of Ontario. This amount also allowed for a $25,000.00 
endowment fund to provide perpetual maintenance to ensure that 
the project would not become a burden to future generations of 
masons. A unique fund raising logo was created called H.O.M.E. 
(Heritage Ontario Masonic Endeavours); the four initials were 
enclosed in a solid foundation to represent the concrete basement 
vault for archival storage, with a stylized gable roof over a portion of 
the logo symbolizing the lodge room on the second floor and 
including the printed challenge to Restore Our Past. 

The fund raising campaign officially began at the Annual 
Communication of Grand Lodge held in July, 1982, although many 
committee meetings had been held previously, representatives were 
appointed in every masonic district, and a number of promotion 
meetings held at the invitation of several Masonic Districts. A special 
information booth was set up on the convention floor and staffed 
throughout the communication. 

A luncheon/business meeting was held in the Ballroom of the 
hotel, where the District Representatives, Grand Lodge Officers and 
D.D.G.M.s were given an outline of the overall project. The Deputy 
Grand Master (One of the originators of the Restoration Project), 
R.W. Bro. Ronald E. Groshaw, spoke enthusiastically to the 
Brethren and encouraged their support. Following the luncheon, 
campaign kits were provided to the District Representatives by R.W. 
Bro. Paul Curry and a short costumed theatrical sketch was pres- 
ented by V.W. Bro. Bert Wiggins assisted by five other masons. V.W. 
Bro. Jack Pos had prepared a taped illustrated program consisting of 
67 motivating coloured slides; subsequently seven complete copies 
were made and placed on loan with representatives at strategic 
locations in the jurisdiction to the various districts. The Financial 
Statement for the 'H.O.M.E. PROJECT prepared by the 
M.T.R.C.A. and dated October 31, 1984, shows a revenue of 
$131,600.00 The fund raising campaign was indeed successful but not 
without a great deal of effort by many dedicated masons. 

The first meeting of the Expediting Committee for the 
H.O.M.E. Project under the direction of W. Bro. Alan Hogg, was 
held on October 24, 1982. Five months later the first sod was turned 
as noted below. There then followed some 25 regular meetings with 
much deliberation and careful planning, from which the other events 



1. The Sod Turning Ceremony (Black Creek Pioneer Village) - 
The Grand Master, M.W. Bro. Howard O. Polk, presided 
over this important event which marked the tangible beginn- 
ing of the Restoration Project on March 31st, 1983. In spite 
of the inclement weather, approximately 30 Brethren of The 
Heritage Lodge were in attendance. 

2. Laying The Cornerstone - The Grand Master, M.W. Bro. 
Ronald E. Groshaw, in the presence of some 1,300 spec- 
tators and with the assistance of Mr. Campbell Snider, the 
building contractor, placed the *foundation stone* for the 
restored pre-confederation building in Black Creek Pioneer 

- Village on October 1st, 1983. During the ceremony, Mrs. 

" Florence Gell, Chairman of the M.T.R.C.A. and Mrs. 

Pauline McGibbon, the Reeve of Pioneer Village and former 
Lieutenant Governor of Ontario gave speeches. W. Bro. 
Warren Jones, Secretary/Treasurer of M.T.R.C.A. received 
an appointment to Grand Lodge and was presented with his 
apron as Grand Steward (11). 

3. Ribbon Cutting Ceremony - This long awaited event took 
place on September 29, 1984, with V.W. Bro. Alan Hogg as 
Master of Ceremonies. The 'Official Party' included: Hon. 
James Allan, Hon. Pauline McGibbon, Mr. Cy Strange, R.W. 
Bro. Ed Drew, Mrs. Florence Gell, Mr. Bill Foster, R.W. 
Bros. David Bradley and Bob Throop, and Mr. Russell 
Cooper. Bouquets were presented to Pauline McGibbon, 
Florence Gell and Margaret Hesp, Commemorative Plaques 
were presented to Pauline McGibbon and James Allan. 

The continuing function of the Expediting Committee, 
renamed 'Black Creek Masonic Heritage Committee' and 
recognized as a Standing Committee of The Heritage Lodge, 
is to maintain haison with the M.T.R.C.A. on the operation, 
maintenance, furnishing and staffing of the restored lodge 
room. It is also the Committee's responsibility to recom- 
mend to The Heritage Lodge Committee of General 
Purposes any improvements to the restored lodge room, its 
furnishings and any other matter which will enhance the 
image of Freemasonry portrayed to the general public who 
visit the village. This committee has had but one chairman 
since its inception, and the Lodge is very grateful to V.W. 
Bro. Alan Hogg for his continued service. 

The major effort has been the soliciting of volunteers to act 
as 'Interpreters'. W. Bro. James Major was responsible for 


marshalling the initial roster which insured that a volunteer 
mason would be present to welcome visitors and answer 
questions every day the village is open to the public. 

4. Dedication Ceremony (June 25, 1985) - The Grand Master, 
M.W. Bro. Ronald E. Groshaw, in his address to Grand 
Lodge stated "... in recognition of the enthusiasm and 
resourceful manner in which a pre-confederation lodge room 
was refurbished and refurnished, and to render it a truly 
authentic memorial to our rich Masonic heritage in this 
jurisdiction, I was pleased to dedicate this small, special 
purpose lodge room in its new environment. A large number 
of our membership are dedicated to act as custodians of this 
building while Black Creek Pioneer Village is open to the 
pubhc. By their exemplary demeanour, I feel confident that 
Masonry can be projected to the pubhc as a force of 
goodness and stability." (12). 

The original home of Blackwood Lodge No. 311, G.R.C., in 
Woodbridge, Ontario, has now been restored and is situated just 
inside the main entrance to the Black Creek Pioneer Village on 
Shoreham Drive, Downsview, Ontario. This 'living pioneer village' 
with a background of many restored, pre-confederation buildings, 
representing many phases of Pioneer Ontario Living, now includes 
an authentic lodge room of the period providing a window on our 
masonic past to more than 300,000 visitors annually. 


The accomphshed Toronto Artist, Basil Liaskis, an Honorary 
Member of The Heritage Lodge, donated his time, talent, and 
generosity to create exclusively for The Heritage Lodge, a beautiful 
watercolour of the two-storey 'Tinsmith Shop' with the 'Masonic 
Lodge Room' on the second floor, in the Black Creek Pioneer 
Village, Toronto. Brother Liaskis donated his original work as well 
as the limited edition prints (350) to the Lodge. The magnificent 
lithograph was printed on acid-free rag paper, in order to preserve 
it for generations to come. The selUng price for each limited edition 
is $75.00, with all proceeds designated to The Heritage Special 
Projects Account. There are still a few prints remaining. The original 
work is currently on loan to the National Art Gallery, Ottawa. 



There was a general feeling amongst The Heritage Lodge 
Brethren that there was too large a gap of inactivity between the 
Installation and Investiture Ceremonies in November and the next 
Regular Meeting of the Lodge the following March. To fill this void 
it was decided to hold a special dinner meeting sometime in January 
and invite a special guest speaker. 

Accordingly, the 'First Annual Heritage Banquet' was held 
in the York Masonic Temple, Toronto, Ontario, January 31st, 1985. 
The Guest Speaker on this ocassion was R.W. Bro. H. Allan Leal, 
Q.C. and Officer of the Order of Canada, who presented a most 
interesting paper titled "James Kirkpatrick Kerr - His Life and Times". 

The concept was so well received that 'The Annual Heritage 
Banquet' is one of the major highlights of the year. The next five 
Banquets were held in the Banquet Hall of the Visitors Centre in the 
Black Creek Pioneer Village. The Eighth Annual Heritage Banquet 
was held again in the York Masonic Temple, Toronto. 

Other Distinguished Speakers are Hsted as follows: 

1986 - Bro. Hon. John Ross Matheson Q.C. 

1987 - V.W. Bro. Burton C. Matthews, President University 

of Guelph 

1988 - M.W. Bro. Robert N. Osborne, Grand Master 

Grand Lodge of Michigan' 

1989 - Jerry Marsengill, FPS, President Philalathes Society 

1990 - Bro. Rabbi Dr. David Monson LL.D. 

1991 - R.W. Bro. Wallace E. McLeod, Grand Historian, 

1992- V.W. Bro. John Lawer Q.C, Sovereign Grand 
Commander, Supreme Council 33 Deg. A.& A.S.R. 
of Freemasonry of Canada 


At a Regular Meeting of The Heritage Lodge held in the 
Port Hope Masonic Temple, March 21st, 1984, a Special Task Force 
(13) with R.W. Bro. Balfour Le Gresley as Chairman and assisted by 
R.W. Bros. Jack Moore and Jack Pos, and W. Bro. Dick Marshall, 
was commissioned to look into the possibiHty of reprinting the 116 
Bulletins comprising some 2000 pages and pubhshed between the 
years 1949 to 1976, by the Canadian Masonic Research Association. 


R.W. Bro. Wallace McLeod was added to the Committee before the 
second meeting at the home of Daisy and Jack Pos on September 2, 
1984. R.W. Bro. Ed Ralph and W. Bro. James Major were added to 
the Coimnittee before the December 16, 1984, meeting at the home 
of Balfour LeGresley. R.W. Bro. Jack Moore withdrew at this time. 
Five other meetings were scheduled up to May 12, 1985. 

R.W. Bro. J. Lawrence Runnalls, who had formerly served 
the office of President and Secretary of the Canadian Masonic 
Research Association and who had authored nine of the papers, 
provided valuable encouragement and guidance to the Committee. 
Bro. Runnalls also prepared the Foreward to the final three volume 

From November 1984 until April 1985 Masons across 
Ontario were asked to show their interest in the project. The 
response surpassed 600 and advance payment was requested in the 
amount of $55.00 per set. By October 15, 1985, more than 750 orders 
had been received and printing was begun by the Maple Leaf Press 
Inc., Toronto. Just over 11 complete sets were printed to provide as 
many masons with a prized addition to their personal Ubrary. A net 
profit of over $14,000.00 was turned over to The Heritage Special 
Projects Fund. 

8. Special Lectures 

The First Pubhc Lecture sponsored jointly by The Heritage 
Lodge and the Hamilton Masonic Past Masters' Association was held 
in the MacNab Street Presbyterian Church Hall, Hamilton, Ontario, 
on October 30, 1984. This was a Bicentennial Project < CELEBRAT- 
ING TOGETHER> - <1784 - ONTARIO - 1984 >. The Special 
Speaker on this occasion was Professor Dr. Robert L. Fraser from 
the University of Toronto who provided a new perspective of Sir 
Allan N. MacNab - "The Making of the Peaceable Kingdom", R.W. 
Bros. Ed Ralph and Wayne Elgie provided the leadership for this 
experiment in sponsoring pubhc lectures. While the project was 
succesful, no other public meetings have been held. 

A North American Masonic Lecture Tour, featuring W. Bro. 
John Hamill P.A.G.D.C., , a renowned International Lecturer on 
Freemasonry, was co-ordinated by The Heritage Lodge under the 
direction of R.W. Bro. Ed Ralph. While the May, 1989, Lecture Tour 
was concentrated in eight major centres in Ontario (Toronto, 
Ottawa, Kingston, Windsor, St Catharines, Sudbury, North Bay, and 
Tottenham), out of Province lectures were presented in Edmonton 
and Calgary, Alberta, Winnipeg, Manitoba, and Columbus, Ohio. 


The Lecture Tour was approved by the Grand Lodge and 
the inaugural Banquet was held in the Scottish Rite Cathedral in 
Hamilton, Ontario. W. Bro. Hamill is the Librarian and Curator at 
Freemason's Hall, London England, Recipient Grand Honours in the 
Craft and Royal Arch, Author of three Masonic books and numerous 
papers, and Past Master of Quatuor Coronati Lodge No. 2076. 

The Heritage Lodge had planned to publish all the Lectures 
of the Lecture Tour in a single bound volume; but copies of the 
original manuscripts were never received. However, a siniilar lecture 
tour was held in June, 1991, in Australia, under the auspices of the 
Lodge of Research No. 218, A.F.& A. Masons of Victoria. W. Bro. 
Hamill ceded the World Rights to the Austrahan Masonic Research 
Council. Therefore, this lecture series will be found published 
nowhere else. The paper titles are as follows: * Whence come we? 
* Whither are we going? * Freemasonry in England. * Contemporary 
Anti-Masonry in England. * English Royal Freemasons. * The 
Development of the Lodge. * The English Royal Arch. * How England 
handles Fraternal Relations. Only a limited number of copies were to 
be printed. 


The concept for this award was introduced by R.W. Bro. 
Frark J. Bruce, Chairman of the Award of Merit Committee, at the 
Regular Meeting, November 16, 1983, to the effect that: 

"The Lodge wishes to recognize the outstanding 
contribution made by a Mason, whether a member of 
The Heritage Lodge or not, to the Craft within 
Ontario. This will be in the form of a Plaque called 
*The William James Dunlop Award*. It is not intended 
to be based on any particular time frame, and not 
more than ONE given per year. But is given for a 
continuing contribution to Masonry." 

There then followed 12 itemized conditions for the award 
and the selection procedure. To date, there have been but three 
recipients for this award, namely: 

R.W. Bro. WaUace E. McLeod, November 20, 1985 
R.W. Bro. Jacob (Jack) Pos, September 17, 1986 
R.W. Bro. David C. Bradley, November 16, 1988 



The 'Fourth & Seventh Objectives', taken from the Preface 
of the Lodge By-Laws state: 

"4. To organize and maintain a 'Central Inventory* of 
items of historical interest in the possession of 
Lodges. " 

"7. To encourage Masonic Scholars and Lodge 
Historians to become more interested in the 
history of their own Lodges and their artifacts. " 

The Lodge Committee to address the above objectives is 
called the 'CENTRAL DATA BANK'. When this committee was 
first formed, the members were expected to visit extensively across 
the Province and search out items of significant interest, record the 
important historical information and verify the factual data. This 
information should then be processed, catalogued and properly 
stored for protection and easy access. Such artifacts or historical 
items so discovered would always remain in the possession of the 
respective lodges. Many lodges have already re-discovered important 
items of local historic significance and restored them for suitable 
display in the lodge room or in adjacent facihties, for viewing by 
their members and visitors. 

W. Bro. Balfour LeGresley, Chairman of the Central Data 
Bank Committee in 1978, reported (Vol. 02, No. 04, pg.4) (10), "A 
hst of 40 items of masonic interest and significance with a brief 
comment concerning the item, its location and the person to contact, 
had been prepared. It was planned to research the items and add to 
the hst." The author recalls having made a special trip to Vittoria 
Lodge No. 359, Wilson District, at the request of Bro. Le Gresley to 
photograph several items of interest including a unique red oak chair 
made by the Pullman Coach Company in Brantford and first used as 
the Judge's Chair by our first Grand Master when the seat of 
government for Talbot District was located in Vittoria. Many similar 
objects, located in various lodges throughout the jurisdiction have 
been photographed and catalogued. But there are many more and 
the task is enormous. 

Pictures, both coloured and black & white, provide an 
excellent record of our past. Articles that are too valuable to display 
in open exhibits and must be safely secured can be exhibited by 
means of photographic reproductions. These may include gems 



mounted in silver and gold for masonic jewels; or handcrafted cut 
glass and ceramics; and ornate carvings in wood and marble. Pictures 
can also serve as a reminder of lost items that may some day be 
recovered. For example, photographic records of several historical 
items of the former Grand Lodge Library at 888 Yonge Street, are 
available and show, for example, two hand painted silk aprons 
believed to predate 1800 from the Grand Lodge according to the 
Ancient Constitution. They are presumed lost, but could be identified 
by the photographic record. 

The Heritage Lodge has recently purchased high quality 
recording and amplification equipment with wireless microphones to 
record not only the informal verbal presentation and reviewers 
comments, but the informal discussion from the audience. These 
cassettes will be catalogued and made available to the general 


From the charge of investiture for the Lodge Historian, we 
are admonished "Your diligence and discrimination in faithfully 
recording and reporting the events of the lodge are especially necessary 
in order that the brethren of the future may know and appreciate the 
past." This is good advice not only for the Lodge Historian, but for 
each of us who has a special interest in preserving our Masonic 

But you say what can the individual mason do? After 600 
years of craft masonry that has been researched by many eminent 
scholars what is there possibly left for me to discover? The first thing 
to do is visit a number of museums, a good place to start is the one 
located next to the Lodge Room of Niagara Lodge No. 2. Then visit 
more extensive museums to broaden your perspective and form an 
appreciation of the large number of possibilities. Perhaps you may be 
influenced by pleasures from you past when you may have found 
satisfaction in collecting cards featuring sports heros, stamps and 
coins from different countries, favourite comic books, medals, hand 
guns, etc. Then make a tour of antique shops, *used books' shops, 
attend 'flea markets' and take in garage sales. Pieces of our masonic 
past are everywhere just waiting to be discovered. 

Once you have collected a few items, your own personality 
and special interest will probably lead you into some specialty such 
as: collecting masonic stamps, coins, medals, post cards, glass, 
ceramics, jewellery, working tools, symbolic ornaments, gavels, rug 


patterns, lithographs, books, rituals, certificates, parchments, to name 
a few. As your collection grows, you will need to design a means of 
displaying the items, perhaps in special albums, picture frames, wall 
mountings, display cases, and free standing floor pedestals. Most of 
us have an inherent desire to possess something of intrinsic value, we 
admire and indeed may even envy that which is in another*s 
exchequer, but with a httle effort we too can capture something of 
the past. Perhaps the search may be more rewarding than the 

The late R.W. Bro. Wm. S. McVittie took on the challenge 
to photograph every craft lodge meeting place in the Province of 
Ontario. Unfortunately this work was not completed before he died 
and no one has picked up the challenge to complete the work. As a 
past member of the Grand Lodge Advisory Committee on Lodge 
Buildings, I am surprised that they do not have a complete inventory 
of all such facilities, in fact they don*t even have a record of floor 
plans or lodge lay-outs except in those cases where plans for new and 
remodelled facilities have been submitted for approval. Therefore, if 
our Grand Lodge doesn't have anything such as a museum, or 
records of lodge facilities, then the possibiHties for individual pursuits 
are unlimited. 

This year marks the beginning of the next 200 years in the 
history of Niagara Lodge No. 2. It is the first lodge authorized to 
wear the newly designed bicentennial apron. Therefore it is most 
appropriate that someone from Niagara Lodge should research the 
subject of 'Masonic Aprons* tracing its origin from the operative 
plain full length apron as illustrated in ''Hogarth's Night" (16), and 
soon followed in the 18th century by aprons with adorned with 
various kinds of decorations and dashes of colour in edgings and 
linings of blue, red and green (17), to the current designs offered by 
the regalia suppliers and now the new bicentennial apron. It would 
be a real challenge to arrange a display of aprons from the earhest 
of times to the present day. 

My personal challenge is the collection of masonic rug 
patterns, one of the most beautiful patterns is that which was 
designed in 1914 by Bro. Joseph S. Cook (17), a member of Guelph 
Lodge No. 258, and head designer and pattern maker of the Guelph 
Carpet Mills. The same pattern was used for several other lodge 
rooms in the Province; including: 1) the Masonic Hall in Mimico, 2) 
the old lodge room on the third floor in the Masonic Temple in St. 
Catherines, 3) the lodge room of Onandago Lodge No. 519, and 4) 
a lodge room in Eastern Ontario perhaps in the Belleville or 
Kingston area; however in the latter case the building was destroyed 


by fire sometime in the mid 1960*s. These carpets are no longer 
made and when the remaining carpets are worn and replaced with 
plain carpets another piece of our history will be lost. Unless 
someone can salvage a representative panel of the design and 
preserve it in a picture frame for display. 

Mention was made earlier (pages 156-157) of the difficulties 
encountered by Societies and Associations and their unsuccessful 
attempts to organize themselves under the umbrella of the Grand 
Lodge of Canada in the Province of Ontario. The Heritage Lodge 
was equally thwarted in their initial efforts, but perseverance 
prevailed and the Research Lodge, with limitations, was eventually 
Constituted; but it took the Lodge By-Laws Committee, with W. Bro. 
Donald Thornton as Chairman, another five years to successfully 
bring about important changes to the Constitution (19), that apply to 
research lodges. 

These changes (new Part IL\, Section 383A), Ust 27 
amendments which were adopted at the 135th Annual Communi- 
cation held in Toronto, July 18, 1990. It is now possible, with the 
consent of the Grand Master and the Grand Lodge of Canada in the 
Province of Ontario, to form Lodges for the purpose of masonic 
study and conducting research in masonic and related matters; and 
after operating under dispensation for a period of not less than 6 
months, may petition for the granting of a charter. 

Research lodges shall report to the Grand Master or his 
designate, and shall not be assigned to any particular masonic 

Research lodges may admit as 'subscribing members* 
(without the necessity of balloting), those who desire to be aware of 
and support the progress of masonic research in Ontario but do not 
i desire full membership. 

I All 'members* of a research lodge must maintain active 

membership in good standing in a regular lodge of this Grand Lodge. 
Membership in a research lodge only shaU not qualify a mason to 
continue membership in good standing of this Grand Lodge. These 
are but a few of the changes that now make it possible for others in 
the Jurisdiction to form research lodges. 




1. A.F.& A.M., Grand Lodge of Canada in the Province of Ontario, 
Proceedings , Forty-Third Annual Communication, Toronto, July 
20-21, 1898, p. 278-279. 

2. A.F.& A.M., Grand Lodge of Canada in the Province of Ontario, 
Proceedings , Sixty-Second Annual Communication, Belleville, July 
18, 1917, p. 383. 

3. A.F.& A.M., Grand Lodge of Canada in the Province of Ontario, 
Proceedings . 1970 One Hundred and Fifteenth Annual Communi- 
cation {1970}, to the One Hundred and Thirty-Fifth Annual 
Communication {1990}; (See Grand Secretary's Report). 

4. Carter, James D., Masonry in Texas - Background, History, and 
Influence to 1846 , Published in Waco by the Committee on 
Masonic Education and Service for the Grand Lodge of Texas A.F. 
and A.M., Second Edition 1958. 

5. The Heritage Lodge No. 730, Historical Record of the Develop- 
ment of The Heritage Lodge , Vol.1, up to Oct. 27, 1976. 

6. , Proceedings - Regional Masonic Workshop, held 

April 5, 1975, Seaforth Ontario. 

7. , Proceedings - Regional Masonic Workshops , held 

in Brantford and Hanover, March 27 and April 3, 1976. 

8. Pos, J., Personal notes. 

9. The Heritage Lodge No. 730, Historical Record of the Develop- 
ment of The Heritage Lodge . Vol. II, up to Sept. 21, 1977. 

10. The Heritage Lodge No. 730, Bound Proceedings - The Heritage 
Lodge No. 730, A.F. & A.M.. G.R.C. . Vol. I - Vol. 5, 1982. 

11. A.F.& A.M., Grand Lodge of Canada in the Province of Ontario, 
Proceedings , 1970 One Hundred and Twenty-Ninth Annual 
Communication {1984}, (See Grand Master's Address) pg. 25. 

12. A.F.& A.M., Grand Lodge of Canada in the Province of Ontario, 
Proceedings , 1970 One Hundred and Thirtieth Annual Communi- 
cation {1985}, (See Grand Master's Address) pg. 25. 

13. The Heritage Lodge No. 730, Bound Proceedings - The Heritage 
Lodge No. 730. A.F. & A.M.. G.R.C. . Vol. 6 - Vol. 10, 1987. 

14. A.F.& A.M., Grand Lodge of Canada in the Province of Ontario, 
Whence Come We? - Freemasonry in Ontario 1764-1980, Edited 


by The Special Committee on the History; Wallace McLeod, 
Chairman, pg.233, 1980. 

15. The Heritage Lodge No. 730, The Papers of The Canadian 
Masonic Research Association , Vol. 3, pgs. 1728-1731, 1986. 

16. Henry Wilson Coil, Coil's Masonic Encyclopedia , pg. 63, 1961. 

17. Bernard E. Jones, Freemasons' Guide and Compendium , pg. 452. 

18. Jack Pos, A Brief History of the Masonic Carpet in the Blue Room 
of the Guelph Masonic Temple, 32 Quebec Street , Researched by 
R.W. Bro. John F. Heap, 980. 

19 A.F.& A.M., Grand Lodge of Canada in the Province of Ontario, 

Proceedings , 1970 One Hundred and Thirty-fifth Annual Commun- 
ication {1990}, (See 'Report of the Committee on Constitution and 
Jurisprudence'), pg. 113. 

Jack Pos 


So each one stand, - a narrow line 
Divides the future from the past, - 

A little space to labor in, 
Too brief for purposes so vast. 

Those grand designs, whose tracing proves 
Our inspiration is from heaven, - 

Those boundless hopes, - those deathless loves; 
Tis but a day to these is given! 

Then let us labor while we can - 
Throw off the burdens that oppress - 

Redeem this poor and fleeting span 
And look to God to help and bless? 

And should we seek, to give us cheer, 

Examples of the bold and true, 
A cloud of witnesses is here. 

To prove what laboring men can do. 

Rob Morris* 
* Masonic Odes and Poems by Rob Morris, published by the 
Masonic Book Club, 1990, p. 47. 



The following names of deceased members of The Heritage 
Lodge No. 730, G.R.C., have come to our attention during the past 
year. In several cases, the specific date of passing was not known. 

M.W. Bro. James Noble Allen (Charter Member) 


Amity Lodge No. 32, G.R.C. 

Died May 9, 1992 

W. Bro. Alfred Best 


Consecon Lodge No. 50, G.R.C. 

Died February 16, 1992 

V.W. Bro. Clyde Bowman (Charter Member) 


Scotland Lodge No. 193, G.R.C. 

Died October 15, 1991 

Bro. David Randall Edwards 

Died January 3, 1992 

W. Bro. Robertson Gillelan 


General Mercer Lodge No. 548, G.R.C. 

Died October 2, 1991 

Bro. James LeSage 


Bedford Lodge No. 638, G.R.C. 

Died in 1992 

W. Bro. Thomas Russell McLelland 


Connought Lodge No. 501, G.R.C. 

Died in 1992 

Bro. Ronald Wilson Padgett 


Runnymede Lodge No. 619, G.R.C. 

Died September 22, 1990 

(Notified Aug. 28,1991) 


W. Bro. Leslie Trenwith Richardson 


Cochrane Lodge No. 530, G.R.C. 

Died August 8, 1990 

V.W. Bro. John Storrie 

St. Catharines 

Adanac Lodge No. 614, G.R.C. 

Died May 14, 1992 

Bro. John Arthur Bolt Thomson 


Huron Lodge No. 392, G.R.C. 

Died September 2, 1991 

V.W. Bro. Gordon Henry Wilker 

New Hamburg 

New Dominion Lodge No. 205, G.R.C. 

Died April 8, 1991 

(Notified August 30, 1991) 


Thou land of milk and honey, land of com, and 

oil, and wine, 
How longs ray hungry spirit to enjoy thy food 

I hunger and I thirst afar, the Jordan rolls- 

I faintly see thy paradise all clothed in living 


My day of life declineth, and my sun is sinking 

I near the banks of Jordan, through whose 
waters I must go: 

Oh, let me wake beyond the stream, in land 
celestial blest, 

To be forever with the Lord in Canaan's prom- 
ised rest. 

* Last two verses from Rob Morris's poem 'The Land of 
Milk and Honey from Masonic Odes and Poems , pub- 
lished by the Masonic Book Club, 1990, p. 66. 



The Most Worshipful The Grand Master 

M.W. Bro. Norman E. Byrne 

166 John Street South, 
Hamilton, Ontario, L8N 2C4 

The Deputy Grand Master 

R.W. Bro. C. Edwin Drew 

5 Scotland Road, 

Agincourt, Ontario, MIS 1L5 

The Grand Secretary 

M.W. Bro. Robert E. Davies 

P.O. Box 217 
Hamilton, Ontario, L8N 3C9 


Wor. Master 

Immediate Past Master 

Senior Warden 

Junior Warden 




Assistant Secretary 

Senior Deacon 

Junior Deacon 

Director of Ceremonies 

Inner Guard 

Senior Steward 

Junior Steward 




Auditors R.W. 

R.W. Bro. Frank Dunn 

R.W. Bro. Wilfred T. Greenhough 

W. Bro. Stephen H. Maizels 

W. Bro. David Fletcher 

R.W. Bro. R. Cerwyn Davies 

R.W. Bro. Duncan J. McFadgen 

R.W. Bro. Rev. W. Gray Rivers 

V.W. Bro. George F. Moore 

R.W. Bro. Kenneth L. Whiting 

W. Bro. Thomas Crowley 

V.W. Bro. Donald B. Kaufman 

R.W. Bro. Larry J. Hostine 

W. Bro. George Napper 

R.W. Bro. E. (Ted) Burton 

R.W. Bro. Leonard R. Hertel 

R.W. Bro. Fred R. Branscombe 

W. Bro. Gordon L. Finbow 

Bros. Kenneth G. Bartlett & James Curtis 


Page No. 191 


Archivast & Curator R.W. Bro. Edmund V. Ralph 

Editor R.W. Bro. Jack Pos 

Masonic Information R.W. Bro. Robert S. Throop 

Librarian R.W. Bro. John Storey 

Graphics Bro. Basil Liaskas 

Finance & By-Laws W. Bro. Donald D. Thornton 

Membership W. Bro, Nelson King 

Black Creek Masonic Heritage V.W. Bro. Alan D. Hogg 
Black Creek Masonic Interpretors V.W. Bro. Kenneth C. McLellan 

Publications R.W. Bro. Balfour Le Gresley 

Liaskas Paintings R.W. Bro. Frank G. Dunn 

Annual Banquet R.W. Bro. Jack D. MacKenzie 


R.W. Bro. Jack Pos 1977 - 78 

R.W. Bro. Keith Flynn 1979 

R.W. Bro. Donald G.S. Grinton 1980 

M.W. Bro. Ronald E. Groshaw 1981 

V.W. Bro. George E. Zwicker 1982 

R.W. Bro. Balfour Le Gresley 1983 

M.W. Bro. David C. Bradley 1984 

R.W. Bro. C. Edwin Drew 1985 

R.W. Bro. Robert S. Throop 1986 

W. Bro. Albert A. Barker 1987 

R.W. Bro. Edsel C. Steen 1988 

R.W. Bro. Edmund V. Ralph 1989 

V.W. Bro. Donald B. Kaufman 1990 

R.W. Bro. Wilfred T. Greenhough 1991 


President Jack Pos 

Vice-President Alan Hogg 

Secretary/Treasurer Donald Kaufman